Workplace the effect of abdicating leadership on harassment

Workplace harassment is defined as the
offensive behavior that a reasonable person would consider unwelcome.
Harassment refers to prolonged exposure to frequent hostile behaviors at work,
such as excessive criticism of one’s work, withholding of information which
affects performance, spreading of rumors, social isolation, etc. (Einarsen,
Hoel, Zapf, & Cooper, 2010).It is a serious occupational hazard that
directly threatens workers’ physical and psychological safety, and it makes
workers vulnerable to other work hazards. Harm workers physical health and
psychological health (Chan. 2008). There is strong empirical evidence linking
harassment to psychological stress responses that can lead to a multitude of
chronic negative health conditions (Okechukwu 2014), like de-motivation, poor
performance, absenteeism, job dissatisfaction, turnover, mental health
conditions and stress (Bowling Beehr 2006). Harassment at work has been claimed
to be more crippling and devastating problem for employees than all other
work-related stressors together (Wilson, and Thompson, 1991). The qualities of
human relationships at work are often seen as an important factor in people’s
perception of stress and job satisfaction (Einarsen, Raknes, Matthiesen
1994).Harassment is primarily caused by the work and social environment
problems (Leymann 1992). Different work environments are related to harassment
in different organizational settings (Einarsen, Raknes, Matthiesen 1994).  A wide range of work environment factors may
act as precursors to organizational stress and interpersonal conflict (Cooper,
Payne 1978: Vliert 1984). Personality and work environmental factors were
independently related to bullying (Balducci, Fraccaroli and Schaufeli 2011). Work
environment may include different aspects like management, role conflict,
workload, physical environment, social interactions, work control, poor
performing supervisors. Many of these factors are also considered to be job
stressors which lead to job stress (French 1982, Firth 2004). Different
researcher’s finding evaluates different work environmental factors. Laissez
faire leadership style, role conflict and role ambiguity were antecedents of
harassment with role stressors mediating the effect of abdicating leadership on
harassment (Skogstad, Einarsen, Torsheim, Aasland and Hetland 2007). Bowling
and Beehr (2006) reported that work constraints, role conflict and role
ambiguity are the strongest potential antecedents of workplace harassment. As a
result of these interactions; anxiety, burnout, depression obsession or
psychosomatic disorders may occur (McCormack 2006, Jacobshagen 2004, Einarsen
2000, Leymann and Gustafsson 1996).