What are just as evident on the last

What are the applications of Lipids in the food
industry?

Lipids are a major component of food and important structural and
functional constituents of cells in biological systems. As a class, lipids
contribute many desirable qualities to foods, including attributes of texture,
structure, mouth-feel, flavor, and colour. Lipids are a group of
naturally occurring molecules that includes fats, waxes, monoglycerides,
diglycerides, triglycerides, phospholipids, sterols, fat-soluble vitamins (such
as vitamins A, D, E, and K), and others. The basic industrial applications of
lipids include; production of Chinese steamed, used in salad dressings, used as
an emulsifying agent and baking just to mention but a few. Lipids are defined on the basis of their
solubility characteristics, not primarily their chemical composition. The term ‘lipids’
is defined as those organic molecules that are insoluble in water, soluble in
organic solvents for example chloroform, methanol and ether. Various applications
of lipids in the food industry are elaborated further as this paper unfolds.

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Bakery Fats (shortenings)

Shortenings are fats used in the preparation of many foods. This is because
they impart a tender quality to baked goods, they are called shortenings. These
cost-effective shortenings and butter substitutes ensure a crisp bite in
biscuits, cookies, crackers and pastry, a good crumb structure and volume in
bread and cakes and fillings with a creamy, full-bodied taste. At the same
time, fats have anti-staling properties awarding to desirable eating
characteristics are just as evident on the last day in storage as they are on
the first.

Hydrogenated shortenings may be made from a single hydrogenated fat, but
are usually made from a blend of two or more hydrogenated fats. For example,
partially hydrogenated cottonseed or palm oil may be blended with partially
hydrogenated soybean oil for improved performance properties, such as creamy
consistency and good storage stability. Thus, in the manufacture of
hydrogenated shortenings, considerable flexibility is possible providing a wide
choice of finished product characteristics. Lipids also affect the
functional properties of foods; for example, they help to retain carbon dioxide
in dough, thus increasing the final volume of bakery products during
fermentation.

Application
in noodles

In the production of noodles, lipids play a vital role. Elimination of
free lipids on hard wheat and soft wheat greatly improved the color (whiteness)
and strength of dry noodles. It also increased the cutting stress. Non polar
lipids and glycolipids also decreased breaking stress of dry noodles. Lipids
also interact with starch there by improving color and reducing cooking time

 Chinese steamed bread

The main importance of
lipids is their influence on the sensory properties. They affect the texture
and increase the viscosity of the morsel after mixing with saliva, high
viscosity is appreciated by many consumers. The most desirable influence of
lipids is their effects on the odor and flavor of food products. Plant lipids,
being more unsaturated than animal lipids, produce different flavor notes as a
result of culinary operations. In
baking Chinese steamed bread, lipids and polar lipids increase the bread
volume. During mixing lipids are attached to the gluten contents which will
associate with different free polar lipids. The binding of free lipids with
gluten proteins may also allow them to align at the interface of gas cells.
This will increase the retention of carbon dioxide during fermentation. Fats
used to make dough of various types are almost entirely plastic fats which are
mixtures of solid and liquid components that form a solid at certain
temperatures and they change their shape when a certain pressure is applied.

 Salad dressings

In food industry,
lipids are also used in the preparation of mayonnaise. This is because lipids
used are oxidatively stable and free of solids even when exposed to cold
temperatures. Vegetable oils are widely used. Soy bean oil and canola oil which
contain linoleic acid are usually incorporated since they are partially
hydrogenated so that they are oxidatively stable.

Margarine

Fats are used in the manufacture of margarine where fats are hardened
using hydrogen gas, heat, catalyst, pressure and agitation. Lipids also bears
the plasticity property which enables them not to melt at a given fixed
temperature but over extensive range of temperatures. This is because fats are
mixtures of triglycerides (contain three different fatty acids) all with
different melting points. Hydrogen is added to carbon double bonds of fatty acids.
The unsaturated fat becomes saturated. The liquid fat is hardened to form a
solid margarine and shortenings. The margarine will be used for spreads.

Application in edible
coating

High-fat biscuits and
cookies taste good at any time of day. But when fat migration causes their
glossy chocolate coatings to fade, becoming dull and grey in appearance, their
consumer appeal rapidly fades with them. Vegetable fats for compound coatings
are produced from standard raw materials for oils and fats, such as palm oil,
soybean oil, rapeseed and palm kernel oil. Although sophisticated processing is
employed to give the desired characteristics, they are significantly cheaper
than cocoa butter which allows manufacturers of compounds to save on raw
material costs.

Confectionary Fats

Chocolate flavored
products are used not only in traditional confectionery products but also in
bakery, ice cream and many other areas. Composed of cocoa powder or liquor,
sugar and specially designed vegetable fats, chocolate flavored compounds may
be a better choice than real chocolate.

Ice cream fats

A well-oiled ice cream
depends on the good, well-rounded body and rich, creamy taste that fat provides,
it also makes the texture of the ice cream easier to adjust to the demands
specified and allows higher production output. Vegetable fats also have the
important advantage over milk fat that they make it possible to balance the
content of saturated and poly-unsaturated fats in the composition and to reduce
the cholesterol content. Lipids in ice cream performs various functions some of
which are; the fats act as a lubricant and must melt properly during eating, the
fats act as a modifier, on which depends the texture of an ice cream. The fat’s
performance during aging, freezing and aeration is very important. Further the
fats act as a flavor carrier and for that reason it must have a smooth taste
that does not mask any added flavors.

In conclusion, lipids are
used as crucial raw materials in a wide range of convenience foods such as
soups, sauces and party dips, powdered foods, mixes for bread and cakes, as
well as coffee whiteners. Lipids are used as well for manufacturing
emulsifiers, food additives and nutritional supplements.

 

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