TITLE: is transforming to achieve development and growth.

 

 

 

TITLE:            “Pakistan: A Striving Nation-state”

 

NAME: Fareedullah kakar

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Abstract

Pakistan is a striving nation-state
and it is struggling to attain national identity. It is not a failed state and it
is transforming to achieve development and growth. This paper is a quantitative
research paper so with the assistance of the primary source this study
inspects, why Pakistan is a struggling nation-state, the political system of
Pakistan and strategies to become a stable nation-state. Since independence
Pakistan has faced many serious problems. The interference of the military in
politics, corrupt political leaders, wars and conflicts with India has put
Pakistan in a bad situation. There is great need of legitimate leaders and
national pride in the country.

Keywords: Nation-state, Pakistan, Struggling,
Transforming, Stable nation-state, Political system.

 

Introduction

The nation-state is a system of
organization in which people with a collective identity live inside a country
with firm borders and a single government. To protect the rights of Muslims in
the subcontinent Pakistan was created as a result. Since its inception, Pakistan
has faced many problems like losing east Pakistan, facing corrupt politicians,
a hegemonic armed force, a wiped out ?nancial framework. These all problems
pushed Pakistan into extreme poverty and Islamist extremism. Pakistan has been
struggling to attain a steady political system. This work describes that
Pakistan is a developing state and asserts against the idea of Pakistan being a
failed state. Moreover, Pakistan is a struggling nation-state, a state striving
to attain national identity and it is transforming to achieve development and
growth. Many other researchers have also worked on the topic of Nation-state
like Farah Jan’s research paper “Pakistan:
A Struggling Nation-State” which focuses on the struggles Pakistan is
facing since its independence.  An
article by Jochen Hippler “Problems of
Democracy and Nation-Building in Pakistan” tells us about the problems of
nation-building in Pakistan. An article by Nate Barton “How the French Revolution affected the development of nation states” describes
how countries in the past achieved the status of a nation-state with the help
of nationalism. The article of Sidra Jamil Bajwa “Democracy that Pakistan struggles for” tells us the problems in the
political system of Pakistan. And Anthony C. Pick’s research paper “The Nation State” describes the concept
of nation-state and recommendations for the development of a nation-state. So
the main objective of this paper is to focus on the different aspects of
Pakistan’s struggles and describe its recent gains. The scope of this paper is
that it will put a further light on the issues Pakistan is facing or had faced
and help people to balance it. The following are the research questions of this
paper.

·        
Why
Pakistan is a struggling nation-state?

·        
Is
the political system of Pakistan good enough to maintain a stable nation-state?

·        
What
are the recommendations for Pakistan to function as a stable nation-state?

 

Literature Review

The political history of Pakistan is
an evidence for its struggles. Since its independence Pakistan has gone through
a struggling process of nation-building and Pakistan is still struggling to
control and nourish its political and economic institutions. The political
history includes four military regimes, three and half decades of dictatorship
and three major wars with India. In the beginning citizens were not allowed to interfere
in public policy making instead regular military interventions in politics was
at peak.  For the Pakistani nation
military became an alternative. Then the army never gave up the right of
forcing martial law whenever it wished. But then since 2007 the political
sphere of Pakistan shifted towards a positive direction. Such as the 2008
elections, this led to the creation of a coalition government.  “Many liberal democracies of today have gone
through a period of fragility and vulnerability in their course of becoming
democratic” (Jan, Pakistan: A Struggling
Nation-State, p 247).The process of democratization takes a lot of time.
For example countries like United States and United Kingdom faced many
difficulties while achieving democratization. So Pakistan has barely existed
for sixty five years, its nation is still transforming and it will take time to
become a stable nation-state. “Another quandary of Pakistan is the nation
itself, which is fond of experimentation” (Bajwa, Democracy that Pakistan struggles
for, P1).Time and again the people of Pakistan or nation always trust new
politicians and hope for a revolution. There is evidence from the past that how
badly the nation has been taken lead of and utilized for the means of corrupt
Political leaders in the name of revolution. When the founder of Pakistan
Muhammad Ai Jinnah introduced the Two-Nation-Theory. “As a result, when
Pakistan came into existence, it consisted of a wide variety of “ethnic” and
linguistic groups and subgroups, which had very little in common besides being
Muslim” (Hippler, Problems of Democracy
and Nation-Building in Pakistan, P1). Having no common traits in a nation
can never help in maintaining a stable nation-state. A nation should always
share cultural traits such as, religion, language, history and traditions. The
problem of Pakistan is that there are many languages and cultures with little
common traits. Due to which many conflicts and problems arise. This is a big
reason that Pakistan is a striving nation-state and has been not able to attain
peace and prosperity.

Strong military establishment in
countries with the working of democracy overtime reduced the powers of the
military establishment from authoritarian rule. The future of Pakistan’s
democracy union lies in the procedure itself. “The main challenge for the
current government is to assert its authority over the army, while avoiding
direct confrontation with the military establishment” (Jan, Pakistan: A
Struggling Nation-State, p 250).It is important for Pakistan to establish a
political system in which it should maintain and declare its power over the
military establishments and should keep away from any kind of conflict or clash
with the military establishments to maintain a stable nation-state. “Pakistan’s
problem is that its politics is a puppet of the upper class” (Bajwa, Democracy that Pakistan struggles for, P1).In
the political hierarchy of Pakistan not even a single politician belongs to the
middle class. Most of the politicians are feudal lords and big business
tycoons. The political elites of Pakistan only struggle for democracy to save
their own houses. This kind of politics keeps the country away from maintaining
a stable nation-state.

“The first requirement of any society
is peace and order, and the only way to bring that about is to possess a ruler
who is generally accepted as legitimate” (Pick, The Nation State, P37). A Legitimate and true leader can settle
controversies and validate laws by which controversies or problems can be
settled without any judgment. So it is important for a nation to have a true
leader who struggles and fights for the rights or means of the nation. It is
also important to promote nationalism in the country. Because many countries in
the world attained the status of nation-state with the help of nationalism.
“The spread of nation states was directly impacted by the spread of popular
nationalism” (Barton, How the French
Revolution affected the development of nation state, P1).  National pride of people allowed states to
start to function with increased unity and strength at the time of the French
revolution. To maintain a better nation-state the military establishment should
not interfere in the politics of the country because this will lead to
conflicts and wars. Many geographers explain that for a country to work or
function as a Nation-state It must have defensible borders and the masses of
the country must have common few foundational values, attitudes and beliefs.

 

Methodology

The nature of this research paper is
quantitative. Questionnaires were distributed among the students of Forman
Christian College, Lahore.  The content
of the questionnaire was focused on finding out student’s views, opinion and
knowledge about Pakistan as a striving nation-state. The inquiries asked in the
survey specifically address the research questions of this paper.

 

Result & Findings

The results of the carried out survey
to look into student’s perceptions of Pakistan as a striving nation-sate is
summarized. Closed-Ended questions were asked in the questionnaire and there
were a total of 10 questions in the questionnaire. The survey was carried out
from 10 students. 6 out of 10 students thought that Pakistan can become a
stable nation-state in the future. 3 out of 10 students agreed that the
military should interfere in the politics of Pakistan. 2 students agreed that
there is complete national pride and nationalism in the people of Pakistan. 5
students thought that the political system of Pakistan is good enough to
maintain a stable nation-state. 6 out of 10 students agreed that there are
legitimate leaders in Pakistan. 5 students agreed that there are common
foundational values, attitudes and beliefs among the people of Pakistan. 7 out
of 10 students thought that Pakistan has defensible borders. 8 students agreed
that the wars and conflicts with India effected Pakistan’s status of being a
nation-state. 6 out of 10 students thought that the people of Pakistan should
trust new political leaders in the name of revolution. None of the students
thought that Pakistan is a failed state.

 

 

 

Discussion

All questions of the questionnaire
examine students about their opinion on Pakistan a striving nation-state. Some
students thought that Pakistan can become a stable nation-state in the future
because they thought that Pakistan is a state striving to attain national
identity and it is transforming and working hard to achieve development and
growth. Many students thought that the military should not interfere in the
politics of Pakistan because history is evidence that whenever the military
establishments tried to interfere in politics many conflicts and problems came
into existence which pushed Pakistan in a bad condition. Many students dis
agreed that there is complete national pride or nationalism among the people of
Pakistan because they thought that the many people in Pakistan are involved in
freedom movements like in Balochistan. And many people are not happy with the
bad situations of the country and political leaders involved in malpractices.
Five students did not agree that the political system in Pakistan is good
enough to maintain a stable nation-state because majority of the politicians in
the country are from upper class and they always struggle for their own mean
not for the nation. True and legitimate leaders should be given chance that is
why they were not in the favor of the political system in Pakistan. Many
students thought that there are true and legitimate leaders in Pakistan which
can change Pakistan in future if given chance like the Chairman of Pakistan
Tehreek-e-Insaf Imran khan. Five students did not agree that there are common
foundational values, attitudes and beliefs among the people of Pakistan because
there are many different languages and cultures in Pakistan. Few students
believed that Pakistan has defensible borders. A large number of students
agreed that the wars and conflicts with India effected Pakistan’s status of
being a nation-state because they believed that wars and conflicts result in
many serious problems. Some students thought that the people of Pakistan should
not trust new political leaders in the name of revolution because in the past
whenever people selected new leaders they did nothing in the future. All the
students agreed that Pakistan is not a failed state but it is transforming and
improving to become a nation-state. The conducted survey tells us that the
students believed that Pakistan is facing many problems since its independence
but it is a striving nation-state and it is transforming to become a stable
nation-state in the future.

 

Conclusion

Since independence Pakistan has faced
many problems and it is a state striving to attain national identity and it is transforming
to achieve development and growth. It is a struggling nation-state but not a
failed state. Military establishment’s interference in politics and corrupt
political leaders has pushed Pakistan into a bad position. A variety of ethnic
and subgroups, which have very little in common besides being Muslim is also a
main problem for Pakistan to become a stable nation-state. There is need of
nationalism and national pride in the people of Pakistan. And there is also
need of legitimate leaders in the country to work for the betterment of the
people. Pakistan is a struggling nation-state and its nation is still
transforming and it will take time to become a stable nation-state.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

Jan, F. (2017). Pakistan: A Struggling Nation-State. online
Academia.edu. Available at:
https://www.academia.edu/2461434/Pakistan_a_Struggling_Nation-State Accessed
30 Dec. 2017.

Jochenhippler.de. (2017). Problems of Democracy and
Nation-Building in Pakistan. online Available at:
http://www.jochenhippler.de/html/problems_of_democracy_and_nation-building_in_pakistan.html
Accessed 30 Dec. 2017.

AP World Class Weebly. (2017). The development of nation
states. online Available at: http://apworldwiki2011-12.weebly.com/the-development-of-nation-states.html
Accessed 30 Dec. 2017.

Bajwa, S. and Bajwa, S. (2017). Democracy that Pakistan
struggles for. online Pakistantoday.com.pk. Available at:
https://www.pakistantoday.com.pk/2014/08/26/democracy-that-pakistan-struggles-for/
Accessed 30 Dec. 2017.

Anon, (2017). Public Services or Corporate Welfare. online
Available at: http://www.thenationstate.co.uk/TheNationState.pdf Accessed 30
Dec. 2017.

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