The stable. After the cement casing hardens, a

       The problem that I’m discussing in my essay is how Fracking is bad for our environment. By intoxicating our drinkable water sources and making them unhealthy for us and animals to consume, this is done with the same chemicals that are used to pump out the oil out of the ground, and also the fossil fuels that are not fully extracted out of the ground, those end up to flow into underground sources. Fracking also opposes a big problem towards the economic system, as it is not regulated, the most extraction is taking place in the USA. This makes the price of oil and gas go dramatically down because of the enormous amount of oil available in the ground and makes big oil-dependent countries that are not able to use Fracking lose a lot of money, which disturbs the system.                     And the solution I’m discussing is an investment into projects for renewable energy sources, finding eco-friendlier energy sources, and make Fracking herded to perform, whilst also trying to step away from fossil fuels and use more renewable energy sources. In the end of this all, it would be a great outcome, if Fracking gets banned, and if we stepped away from the usage of fossil fuels, which may be hard to be accomplished today, but may be possible in the future.                      Fracking is done, by first drilling vertically down into the earth using water to cool down the drill and bring up stone and other broken up materials and then at 7000 feet horizontal drilling takes place after the drilling procedure is done, the drill pipe is removed and replaced with a steel pipe, and then it is filled up with a cement casing to make it more stable. After the cement casing hardens, a perforating gun is sent down the steel pipe. The gun when fired creates perforating holes in the rock, this is done multiple times. (Hydraulic Fracturing 101) The next step is hydraulic fracturing, the process involves pumping water (2-8Milion gallons), sand and some other chemicals (for lubrication), under high pressure down into the rock to loosen up the rock, and create fractures in the rock, the sand keeps the fractures open, also when the pressure is relieved. (“Marathon Oil Corporation”) Then the Oil and natural gas (mostly methane) go up through the pipe with the water to the Fracking tower, but only 25% – 50% of the fracking water is returned back to the surface, and the rest of the water stays in the ground. The remaining water that is still inside of the ground and also the methane that escapes, can spread out to different underground water sources, and by doing so it makes them toxic, undrinkable, and it also opposes a danger unsupervised fire, as it is possible to light the top layer of methane on the water, which may cause problems. After the whole process is done and the well is exhausted, the equipment is removed, alongside with the pipes, and the Fracking tower.The Pros of Fracking are: lover taxes on oil and gas, as countries and states can become more independent of other distributors and do not have to buy from them oil and gas for a price that would be much higher than if they themselves used fracking for the resources, the taxes on oil and gas goes down, which makes people save money, and when people have more money, they also spend more money, so the economy starts to boom inside of the country/state. Another pro would be; the reduced need for coal.  In the 2008 half of the electricity produced in the USA came from the combustion of coal, and because of fracking by 2012 only 37% was produced from coal and the other part from gas. (“26 Pros And Cons Of Fracking”) This is a good thing, as “Burning natural gas produces fewer harmful particles than coal.” Fracking also creates new jobs, for the population, which then results in less poverty, than also less unemployment and also more well-being.The Cons of Fracking are: contamination of water supplies and the nature, a lot of water and chemicals are used in Fracking and this can lead to contamination of underground water if the methane gets released into streams of water. It also makes us lose a lot of drinkable water, which we do not have infinitely in this world, some people do not even have it easily accessible and some die because of dehydration. Another con is that the low price of fossil fuels leads to more consumption, which also leads to more CO2 production, which can lead to environmental contamination and can also lead to global warming. (“Pros and Cons of Fracking”) 20% of the chemicals used for the fracking process are not known, which could mean that they are most likely bad for the environment and the companies that are using them do not want the public to know about it. 

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