Performance of an employee is gauged by how well they execute their job duties and responsibilities. Employees are evaluated by their companies on an Annual or Quarterly basis to assess both their areas of expertise and improvement. Performance is a major catalyst which helps in the success of the organization. It is imperative for the Managers to create a positive work environment, have clear goals, regular communication and give timely, honest feedback so that employee performance increases and performance issue decreases. The organization further needs to inculcate constructive aspects like Organizational Citizenship Behavior, Employee Engagement and Proactive Behavior across the hierarchy to ensure that they have an enriching influence on the Employee Performance.
Organizational Citizenship Behavior is the context or performance in which any job takes place. It basically represents human nature which is sociable and helpful especially in the modern era which gives emphasis on profit-making and individualism (Dyah Sawitri, 2016). A strong culture of OCB shows that the employee is ready to serve the organization in matters that is outside the scope of his job domain. It includes several dimensions within itself like Civic Virtue, Conscientiousness, Altruism, Courtesy and Sportsmanship which help an employee to be caring towards other employees.
Employee Engagement is the relation between an employee and his organization wherein he strongly believes in values and goals of organization is willing to go an extra mile for the organization and displays utmost loyalty towards it (Tzvetana Stoyanova, 2017). An “engaged employee” is one who is completely immersed and enthusiastic about his work and takes positive steps to enhance his organization’s status and interests. For such employees, it is the keenness towards his work which makes them passionate employee and this passion is often displayed in their individual outcomes.
Proactive Behavior by employees refers to preventative, change-oriented and self-initiated behavior in situations which involves acting in advance of a future situation, rather than just reacting. This behavior has three main elements namely Initiative, Prospective and Change through which employees take control and make things happen rather than just adjusting to a situation (Min Qiu, 2015). They generally do not need to be asked to act, nor do they require detailed instructions.
We will analyze each of these aspects and understand their impact on an employees’ performance through this Essay.
Organizational Citizenship Behavior means doing anything that is not in an employees’ formal job description. Even though OCB is deemed to be selfless it can prove to be detrimental as employees’ have a limited amount of time and resources during the day. As OCB is normally labeled as positive behavior, those who exhibit OCB may become more socially attractive which makes them more likely to be appreciated as friends or partners. However, if OCB is done more than required, employees run the risk of burnout, fatigue and stress.
OCB consists mainly of Five Dimensions which are reflection of personality factors that affect variance in personality and these are classified as Civic Virtue, Conscientiousness, Altruism, Courtesy and Sportsmanship (Lo, 2009). Civic virtue refers to the responsibility of the subordinates to participate in the life of the firm such as attending meetings which are not required by the firm and keeping up with the changes in the organization. Conscientiousness is dedication to the job which exceeds formal requirements such as working long hours, and volunteers to perform jobs besides duties. Altruism is voluntary behavior of an employee who provides assistance to an individual with a particular problem to complete his or her task under unusual circumstances. Courtesy includes behaviors, which focus on the prevention of problems and taking the necessary step so as to lessen the effects of the problem in the future. Sportsmanship is the behavior of warmly tolerating the irritations that are an unavoidable part of nearly every organizational setting.
A study was conducted in Indonesia about impact of OCB on Employees’ performance which found that OCB led to Organizational commitment and had a positive effect on performance of employees’ (Dyah Sawitri, 2016). Another study was done in Kenya to collaborate impact of OCB on Employees’ performance in Banking Industry of Nairobi County which showed that dimensions of OCB enabled employees’ to accomplish a tough task (Lelei Joy Chelagat, 2015). Yet another study was done in manufacturing firms in Sri Lanka to understand the effects of OCB on Quality performance which proved that extra role behavior helps to enhance performance of firms (Vathsala Wickramasinghe, 2014).
OCB is advantageous to Organizations as employees’ who engage in OCB often tend to receive better ratings which boosts the morale of others in organization. Such employees’ face lower risk of attrition they are considered to be more valuable owing to their helpful nature. OCB can further enhance productivity within a team, a group or by an individual employee as people are there to support & help each other. Thus, OCB helps to create better communication links & develop new networks within and outside organization.