Parenting is the reality of the generation gap?'”

Parenting
is the act of giving of necessary support to a child for their physical,
emotional, social, and cognitive development (Baydar, Akç?nar, & ?mer,
2012). Since modernization is a continuous process, raising a child in the
period of modernization could be a challenging task as a parent due to the newly
developed technologies and scientific advances offered by the new millennia.
The parents, now as the older generation, grew up in a different time period,
lived in a different social-environment, and brought up with a different set of
values. They, as well as their parenting as they raise a child, should also
adapt with the modern era.

Parents
have a tremendous influence to their children, which will be the next
generation of adults. According to Dempsey, Kimicik & Horn (1993) the
family unit, particularly the parents, is important for the development of
young children’s activity-related attitudes, beliefs, preferences, and
behaviors. The Social Learning Theory (Bandura, 1977) proposed that young
individuals learn through observing other people. Many researches were
conducted and support this view. Parents affect their children’s physical
activity (Thompson, Flumbert, & Mirwald, 2003), academic values (Gniewosz
and Noack, 2012), social adjustments ( D’Angelo, Weinberger, & Feldman,
1995),  intergroup attitudes (Degner
& Dalege, 2013), political and religious attitudes (Jennings, Stoker, &
Bowers, 2009) etc.

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Generational
theory proposed that when people are born within a 20 year time period, have a
location in history, share common beliefs and behavior, and posses a sense
membership within the generational group, generational cohorts emerge (Strauss
& Howe, 1991). Many researches concerning about the generational gap between
parents and their adolescent or young adult children were conducted during the
1960s and 1970s, although, the actual differences in beliefs and values between
parents and their adolescent children were found to be minimal or insignificant
(Jacobsen, Berry, & Olson, 1975). Lamm and Meeks (2009) suggested that
‘differences can be generalized to the mean cohort level’ (p. 615).  In contrast, it is proposed that wrong
questions were being asked about generational differences (Acock and Bengtson,
1980). According to Acock and Bengtson (1980), “Rather than ask, ‘To what
extent is the generation gap real?’ we ask, ‘Where is the reality of the
generation gap?'” (p. 502). This question was pursued through research and
youth perceptions of parental attitudes, not the actual parent attitudes, were
surprisingly strong predictors of young adults’ self reported attitudes. It is assumed
that the generation gap exists when perceived differences exist (Acock and
Bengtson, 1980).  

 Technology is an integral part of contemporary
family life (McHale, Dotterer, & Kim, 2009; Vogl-Bauer, 2003; Wartella
& Jennings, 2001), which directed attention to generational differences
between parents and youth (Clark, 2009; Livingstone, 2003). The Millennial
generation, born between 1980 and 2000 (Pew Research Center, 2010), which
includes contemporary young adults, is proposed to be different and unique from
the Baby Boomer generation (born between 1943 and 1960; Coomes & Debard,
2004) and Generation X, born between 1961 and 1981, cohorts based not only on
Millennials’ access to technology, but how they have integrated technology into
their social lives (Pew Research Center, 2010).

Research
shows notable differences in the usage of present technologies by younger and
older generations (Huffaker and Calvert 2005; Chung et al. 2010; Vodanovich,
Sundaram, and Myers 2010). The younger generations prefer to use microblogging,
social networking, and other technologies for interaction and communication,
while older generations are more likely to use asynchronous tools, such as
emails. Younger generations usually use present technology for sharing personal
experiences, while older generations use it for sharing or discussing ideas.

Further,
generational differences in technological skills have been proposed, with
Millennials experiencing more proficiency and comfort with technology than
previous generations (Prensky, 2001). The differences between generational
cohorts have largely been based on anecdotal evidence and have been perpetuated
by popular media, but little empirical support for actual generational
differences has emerged in the literature (Litt, 2013). However, consistent with
Acock and Bengtson’s (1980) conclusions in their generation gap research, a few
qualitative studies identified perceived generational differences in technology
skills between parents and their children (Clark, 2009; Livingstone, 2003).

Modernization
is a comprehensive concept that illustrates the transition of a society from
ancient to modern culture (Kumar & Mittal, 2014). According to Inkeles and
Smith (1974) a  modern man are has the
readiness for new experience and openness to innovation and change, and the
capability of forming or holding opinions over large numbers of problems and
issues that arise not only in immediate environment but also outside of it. The
development and modernization of technology had made people’s life easier and
contributed positively to social well being so for while it has also brought
about some problems (Krithika and Vasantha, 2013). Parents and their children
do not belong in the same generation cohort resulting to a completely different
set of values and behaviors because they experienced different events during
their formative years (Howe & Strauss, 2003). This study aims to examine the
relationship between parenting and modernization attitudes of Kapampangan
parents. 

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