Microbes strategies have been extensively studied as an

     Microbes are incorporated into integrated pest
management control strategies, taking the role as a biological control agent. Many
countries have implemented restrictions on several pest control management
strategies such as pesticides, manufactures, and uses due to the negative
consequences that have been studied extensively that prove to be harming the
general economy. Due to this, microbial control strategies have been
extensively studied as an alternative to the chemical measures. Biological
microbial control is the specific terminology when a microorganism is selected
to suppress a harmful pest. Biological control varies from natural control
simply because human interventions is heavily invested into regulating certain
pest populations.

     Prior to the use of biological and
chemical control strategies, the economy suffered a massive loss of production
due to crop damage from pest populations. In addition, the economy suffered financially
from the costs of the attempted measures to control and prevent the pests from
damaging crops. Traditional methods such as crop rotating, flooding, dusting,
and removing pests manually were the seen to be more effective in areas where
population pressure was absent. Chemical control or insecticides still remain
to an extent a method to remove pests. Even though chemical control had
advantages such as rapid in action and predictable results, it also had its
drawbacks. According to Kalmakoff, “problems of cost, the need for back-up
technology in relation to distribution, storage, and application, problems of
toxicity, pest resistance, and ecological distortion necessitating recurrent
use” were found to be side effects of using chemicals as the control agent. In
the early nineteenth century, the term biological control was dubbed by Harry
Scott Smith and define as “the utilization of organisms for the control of
population densities of animals and plants.” Since then the term and its
definition have been further expanded and studied. In 1949, the term microbial
control was first used to describe the application of disease-causing
microorganisms or their by products to control and manage pest populations that
were damaging to the economy. Even though the central principle of microbial
control is decades old, the development of pest control strategies took time
because the strategies depended on sufficient knowledge, education, and
training in biology on pathogens such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, and
protozoan.  

    Natural enemies are living organisms that
function to eliminate pests by decreasing the reproductive potential of the
pest and/or by competing with pest population for natural resources such as
plants. Predators, parasites, and pathogens are several natural enemies that
eliminate pest problems in the economy. The application of natural enemies is
proven effective through three approaches for biological control. The first
approach is termed importation. Importation is also referred to as classical
biological control. This strategy involves finding the natural enemy where the
pest originated and exposing it to the region where the pest has thriving and
having the detrimental effects. The natural enemy then will push the pest out
of the region. It is important for the control agent to have a colonizing
ability, which is described as the ability for the microorganism to endure the
changes in the new region. When the natural enemy establishes itself in the new
region, there is little requirement for additional input or help. Importation
is found to be long lasting and inexpensive. Some studies have shown it to be
most effective against exotic pests compared to native insect pests, which may
be a problem. The second approach is augmentation. This strategy involves
supplementing natural enemy populations in a region in order to enhance the
natural occurring populations in that certain region. Augmentation is more so
of a preventive measure rather than a solution. The more natural enemies in a
particular area, the lesser the chance the pest will be able to survive. The
third approach is the conservation of natural enemies.