Mallika VyasIntro to Shakespeare L3Mr. Degnan January 18, 2018The Merchant of Venice Final Project Part 2Passage 1: I am a Jew. Hath not a Jew eyes? Hath not a Jew hands, organs, dimensions, senses, affections, passions; fed with the same food, hurt with the same weapons, subject to the same diseases, healed by the same means, warmed and cooled by the same winter and summer as a Christian is? If you prick us do we not bleed? If you tickle us do we not laugh? If you poison us do we not die? And if you wrong us shall we not revenge? If we are like you in the rest, we will resemble you in that. If a Jew wrong a Christian, what is his humility? Revenge. If a Christian wrong a Jew, what should his sufferance be by Christian example? Why, revenge. The villainy you teach me I will execute, and it shall go hard but I will better the instruction. (Shakespeare, Act 3:49-61)Explanation 1:Many who have read “The Merchant of Venice” cannot forget this extremely influential quotation spoken by Shylock in Act 3 Scene 1. This line ultimately is one of the most relatable pieces of this play to the real world, allowing for the audience to easy make connections to the real world, however, the spine-tingly rage that is present underneath cannot be missed or forgotten. In a sense, that sensation left on the audience is truly evil and not commonly seen in the lighter-toned Shakespearean comedies. Anyway, this quote starts off with Shylock’s monologue of how he is to not be seen on equal grounds as a Christian. He explains how both Christians and Jews are ultimately humans, possessing the same “organs, senses etc.” However, just as the audience begins to sympathy for poor Shylock, his true evil is seen. Rather than being the “bigger man” and dealing with life’s course, he begins to plot and plan to ultimately become just as vile and all those who have deceived him. This change in tone is very sudden and ultimately shows how, all in all, certain individuals are known to rise in times of hardship, whereas others plan to dig themselves a deeper hole. Passage 2:You have among you many a purchased slave Which, like your asses and your dogs and mules, You use in abject and in slavish parts Because you bought them. Shall I say to you ‘Let them be free, marry them to your heirs. Why sweat they under burdens?. . . . . .You will answer ‘The slaves are ours.’ So do I answer you. The pound of flesh which I demand of him Is dearly bought. ‘Tis mine, and I will have it. (Shakespeare, Act 4: 89-99)Explanation 2:This quote takes place in Act 4 Scene 1, in which Shylock is speaking once again. In my opinion, this quote speaks and says much more than provided, literally that is. Many may not see the import of such a quotation however for me, I found this quote to be both realistic and savage-like. Shylock begins by asking, under Venetian law, you are able to purchase “humans” as slaves. This is indeed true and slaves are indeed being purchased by many Venetians such as Antonio. Shylock is very crafty and manipulative in this case for he could care less whether slaves get civil rights or not, but is toying to this “matter” as a emotional appeal and defense on why he could not do the same, quite literally. Essentially, he is saying that if an average Venetian such as Antonio is able to purchase human flesh for their on use, then why is it wrong for Shylock to purchase part of the flesh of a Venetian man? This quotation to me shows the true irony of society and how in many cases, a society may “think” what they are doing is humane and normal, however when flipped and put into context of their own people, is now considered, “inhumane” and “savage-like.” Shylock very literally interpreted the Venetian law to his advantage however, in the matter of this case, is consider “wrong” and “unjust.” Passage 3:The man that hath no music in himself, Nor is not moved with concord of sweet sounds, Is fit for treasons, stategems, and spoils. The motions of his spirit are dull as night, And his affections dark as Erebus. (Shakespeare Act 5: 82-86)Explanation 3:This passage is found in Act 5 Scene 1, directly after Portia’s homecoming and the case with Shylock has been dealt with. In many ways, once again, this serves as a very ironic “comedic” standpoint that Shakespeare has once again included. In this passage, Lorenzo is ordering for music to be played and speaks of how someone who does not enjoy good music is fit to be a treasoner. Shakespeare tries to lighten the mood by instilling some comedy with the “love-struck couples” after such a dark Act prior. However, the irony is seen in this case to be within the lovefilled couples. Each “protagonist”character in this play has acted in a matter of “treason or wrongness” and yet their actions are brushed off as if one is able to act in such a manner on a day to day basis, without any consequences. However, the Jew who wanted equality for himself is now punished and left with nothing on his own. Bassanio cheated his way through a money filled marriage and has stolen from his “best friend” numerous times before. Portia “helped” Bassanio win her hand by cheating, Lorenzo stole all of Shylock’s money and eloped with Shylock’s daughter while Jessica helped him in the process. All of these acts are more so crimes and yet none of them are charged for their wrongdoings. On the other hand, Shylock is paying for his punishment for acting in a vigilante manner and defending what he thought was right. In all honesty, I am not supporting what Shylock did however, all the other “main” characters don’t even get a slap on the wrist and walk away like nothing has happened. This quote proves the true tragedy that is presence in this Shakespearean comedy. Passage 4: What if my house be troubled with a rat, And I be pleased to give ten thousand ducats To have it baned? What, are you answered yet? Some men there are love not a gaping pig, Some that are mad if they behold a cat, And others when the bagpipe sings i’th’ nose Cannot contain their urine; for affection, Mistress of passion, sways it to the mood Of what it likes or loathes. . . . . . So can I give no reason, nor I will not, More than a lodged hate and a certain loathing I bear Antonio, that I follow thus A losing suit against him. Are you answered? (Shakespeare Act 4: 43-61)Explanation 4:In this passage during Act 4, Scene 1, Shylock’s defense against his reasoning for his unusual punishment is very weak and “petty” in a sense. He circulates on the fact that he “just hates Antonio and wants him to suffer” by using day to day feelings to describe his manner. He explains that to him, Antonio is a rat, and similar to some people, they just hate pigs, cats etc. just for “being there.” Shylock’s defense opens up an unstable emotional approach that for me personally, made me question his mental state. It is true that Shylock has been mistreated by Venetians, however, to take out all of his anger on one man is cruel and far from normal. Passage 5:The quality of mercy is not strained. It droppeth as the gentle rain from heavenUpon the place beneath. . . . . . . It is enthronèd in the hearts of kings; It is an attribute to God himself, And earthly power doth then show likest God’s When mercy seasons justice. Therefore, Jew, Though justice be thy plea, consider this: That in the course of justice none of us Should see salvation. We do pray for mercy, And that same prayer doth teach us all to render The deeds of mercy. (Shakespeare Act 4: 179-197)Explanation 5:In this passage in Act 4, Scene 1, Portia is speaking to Shylock in a manner that may try to reason with him and explain how he may reach “salvation” with the higher Gods if he has mercy or better yet, forgives Antonio of his sins. This passage is important to me however, because for starters, it introduces Portia’s “intelligence” and “potential” for the first time as the first female “hero” who saves the day. However, one wrongdoing present here is how, though her argument is valid, it lacks understanding of other cultures and religions. In many ways, her argument represents ideologies that are very “Christian faith-based.” We all know that Shylock is a Jew meaning he practices Judaism and in this case, “salvation” isn’t an argument that is well understood in this religion. Essentially, Portia is fueling Shylock’s anger to want to keep proceeding with his case against Antonio because it is this simple ignorance that is leading Shylock to act in the manner he does. He isn’t recognized as an equal and so he continues to fight, leading Portia to think of other tactics to save Antonio. Passage 6:”My daughter! O, my ducats! O, my daughter! Fled with a Christian! O, my Christian ducats! Justice! The law! My ducats and my daughter! A sealed bag, two sealed bags of ducats,” (Shakespeare Act 2: 15-18)Explanation 6:In Act 2, Scene 8, this line shows greed at its best. Shylock is a confusing character to understand but more so, it is hard to interpret what things matter to him, and what is superficial. In this case, the audience cannot tell whether his daughter is important to him or his ducats. He is seen screaming about both however, ends with, “A sealed bag, two sealed bags of ducats.” In many cases, this is seen as a cry only for his greed and money and not so much his daughter. Similarly, in regards to Venetians, back to Passage 1, it is also one again unclear whether justice or revenge are his main priorities. As we know from Passage 2, Shylock is very good at acting as if he cares about certain matters, when really these “matters” are just supporting is vile plot. Passage 7:All that glitters is not gold; Often have you heard that told: Many a man his life hath sold But my outside to behold: Gilded tombs do worms enfold. Had you been as wise as bold, Young in limbs, in judgment old, Your answer had not been inscroll’d: Fare you well; your suit is cold.” (Shakespeare Act 2: 70-80)Explanation 7:This mockery of the Prince of Morocco in Act 2, Scene 7 is a “classic case” of “I told you so.” Essentially, Morocco was only caring about the appearances of the casket that he didn’t care if there were “worms” inside decaying everything. This line is extremely ironic in a sense due to the fact that majority of this play is based off of appearance, exterior motives, and greed and far from love. Essentially, Portia’s father had set this challenge up in hopes that that the man who is to wed her would love her for who she is rather than her money and status. Though that is ll wonderful, Portia herself helps Bassanio win due to his appearance and Bassanio is happy to win due to her money. Similarly, Shylock is just as greedy about money and vengeance, along with many other characters in the play (Lorenzo, Jessica etc.) This casket drawing essentially foreshadows many of the character’s motives in this play where greed seems to win. Sonnet 1:My love is as a fever, longing still For that which longer nurseth the disease, Feeding on that which doth preserve the ill, Th’ uncertain sickly appetite to please. My reason, the physician to my love, Angry that his prescriptions are not kept, Hath left me, and I desperate now approveDesire is death, which physic did except. Past cure I am, now reason is past care, Andfrantic-mad with evermore unrest; My thoughts and my discourse as madmen’s are, At randomfrom the truth vainly expressed: For I have sworn thee fair, and thought thee bright, Who art asblack as hell, as dark as night. (Shakespeare Sonnet 147)Explication 1:This sonnet to me, represent the ending of this play. In my opinion, I have mentioned numerous times that this play mirrors and leans more towards a Shakespearean tragedy than comedy due to its ironic interpretations on greed, money, and love. This sonnet in my opinion, represents the ending due to the fact that the ending of the play was extremely cliche, with the Disney theme of “happy ever after.” However, I fear that the ending too, was meant to be ironic and satirical in a sense. All the characters that have just “newly-wed” speak about their “love” for one another in a matter of days. This, in real life, is hardly the case. Following, each member of these relationships is in these relationships for ulterior motives. Bassanio is there for Portia’s money, Portia for Bassanio’s good looks, Lorenzo for Jessica’s dad’s money, Jessica for “finally having someone who loves her,” etc. Thus this sonnet represents how these couples have a “disease-like” love, not one in which is pleasurable but unbearable, painful and vile;the kind of love that you speak about with your teeth gritting and clamped shut. In the sonnet, this line, “My thoughts and my discourse as madmen’s are, At random from the truth vainly expressed: For I have sworn thee fair, and thought thee bright, Who art as black as hell, as dark as night,” represents the pain that each couple may feel, one in which they “thought” the other partner was their “soulmate” but in reality they acted out in great foolishness and are now stuck with these individuals as their spouses.Sonnet 2:So are you to my thoughts as food to life, Or as sweet seasoned show’rs are to the ground; And for the peace of you I hold such strife, As ‘twixt a miser and his wealth is found; Now proud as an enjoyer, and anon Doubting the filching age will steal his treasure;Now counting best to be with you alone, Then bettered that the world may see my pleasure; Sometime all full with feasting on your sight, And by and by clean starvèd for a look; Possessing or pursuing no delight Save what is had or must from you be took.Thus do I pine and surfeit day by day, Or gluttoning on all, or all away. (Shakespeare Sonnet 75)Explication 2:In this sonnet, Shakespeare speaks in an undertone of greed. In my opinion, this is a sonnet that works throughout the play as the ongoing underlying theme. Though the starting context speaks about food, around line 3, the course of this sonnet changes from mediocre food to greed and how the speaker, cannot get “enough” of his desires. Essentially, this is very similar in the sense of Shylock and Bassanio, the two greediest characters in this play. Though Shylock is seen to portray the antagonist, Bassanio tends to be on the “good” side and yet possesses such a horrid and sinful part of his personality. Both individuals prey on the idea on money and glue themselves to people that can give them a lot of it. Bassanio doesn’t act like much of a “best friend” until his “money card” may die and then goes to save him. Similarly, Shylock barely mourns the loss of his daughter but rather, mourns his ducats, and even in the beginning of the play, he mentions that he would not “eat or drink with Antonio” but he would “do business with him” even after his hatred. Essentially, Shakespeare explains how greed is addicting and the fellow who is addicted, will never be able to find out on his own but will rather stay in this constant “comatosed” phase. Sonnet 3: When in disgrace with fortune and men’s eyes, I all alone beweep my outcast state, And trouble deaf heav’n with my bootless cries, And look upon myself and curse my fate, Wishing me like to one more rich in hope, Featured like him, like him with friends possessed,mDesiring this man’s art, and that man’s scope, With what I most enjoy contented least; Yet in these thoughts myself almost despising, Haply I think on thee, and then my state, Like to the lark at break of day arising From sullen earth, sings hymns at heaven’s gate; For thy sweet love rememb’red such wealth brings, That then I scorn to change my state with kings. (Shakespeare Sonnet 29)Explication 3:In my opinion, Sonnet 29 reminds me a lot about the beginning of this play. Starting off in the beginning of this play, we have Antonio who for some reason, is heavily depressed. Many of his acquaintances try to shake him out of this feeling, but a rarely successful. Not having known what this play was to be about, the first Act in general, reflects a lot upon Antonio and his feelings of “loneliness.” That being said, all that is changed when Bassanio, Antonio’s best friend, needs his help. Shakespeare speaks of a “sweet love” almost like a bond, that you have between a best friend and yourself, that ultimately cures your sadness. Similarly, Antonio stops pitying himself knowing that he must help his friend as much as possible. The beginning of the play is seen as pure innocence of friendship, one that cannot be replaced by any other means and thus remains its purity. Sonnet 4:Let me not to the marriage of true minds Admit impediments. Love is not love Which alters whenit alteration finds, Or bends with the remover to remove. O no! it is an ever-fixed mark Thatlooks on tempests and is never shaken; It is the star to every wand’ring bark, Whose worth’sunknown, although his height be taken. Love’s not Time’s fool, though rosy lips and cheeks Within his bending sickle’s compass come; Love alters not with his brief hours and weeks, Butbears it out even to the edge of doom. If this be error and upon me prov’d, I never writ, nor no man ever lov’d. (Shakespeare Sonnet 116)Expliction 4:In my opinion, Sonnet 116, is a perfect example of love and marriage at its purest form. This isanother ongoing theme that is present throughout the play. Ultimately, Shakespeare speaks about love and marriage and how it doesn’t falter in times of crisis or if something in a marriage where to change, the love who remain pure and true. In my opinion, this is a great comparison to the love present in the play for it does not relate whatsoever to this definition. I believe that if money were to be lost in Portia’s family or Jessica’s ducats, both of their men wouldn’t mind leaving them in a heartbeat. Their love is not pure but completely blind, and thus has no direction. This is the fault that is present in this play for unlike how Shakespeare describes that marriage and love remain ‘unshaken’ at a time of crisis, it is clear that the love present here in the play is not the same.