to an educational essay written by Nevid (2009), parental responsibilities
start soon after birth, play a significant role and leave an impact on child’s
overall life. Most of the parents usually develop their own parenting style
usually based upon amalgamation of factors such as children’s temperament and
parenting style influenced by their own upbringing, what they observed in other
families, what they have been trained and the surrounding culture. There is no
hard and fast rule about parenting. It usually evolves with the passage of time
as children grow up and develop their personalities. The quality of parenting
is an important influence on children’s intellectual, emotional and social
Sousa (2016) said that there are
many different styles of raising children, all of which have differing effects
on how they develop psychologically. It is important to be an authoritative
parent, enforcing rules and expectations so that the child grows up with a
learned sense of morality. However, parents who take their authority to an
extreme level, expecting unquestioned obedience from their child, are known as
authoritarian parents. This parenting style has negative effects of the social and cognitive development of children.
Furthermore, Morawska (2007) stated
that the progress in children’s achievement is influenced by the decision that
is made by both parents and their children to cooperate or confront each. Also,
children’s academic motivation and behavior are directly influenced by family
activities and parents’ behavior, which are seen as the external factor. For
instance, there is a positive outcome for 13 both parents and children when
parents interact in a fun and loving way during children’s homework time.
reported by Ladd et al. (2011), the evidence linking parental knowledge about
the specific ways in which parents can help children develop cognitive and
academic skills, including skills in math, is limited. However, the available
correlational data show that parents who know about how children develop
language are more likely to have children with emergent literacy skills (e.g.,
letter sound awareness) relative to parents who do not.
(2017) has given emphasis to the behavioral effects of parenting laying in its
advantages that even though children have already tried smoking and
wine-drinking in protest, deep down they know that it is necessary to lead a
healthy lifestyle. They think of their status, maintain healthy habits and take
an active part in their own well-being thanks to the high level of
self-discipline and self-organization, instilled in them by their strict
stated in an article written by Markham (2017), harsh limits may temporarily
control behavior, but they don’t help a child learn to self-regulate. Instead,
harsh limits trigger a resistance to taking responsibility for themselves.
There is no internal tool more valuable for kids than self-discipline, but it
develops from the internalization of loving limits. No one likes to be
controlled, so it’s not surprising that kids reject limits that aren’t
empathic. They see the “locus of control” outside of themselves,
rather than wanting to behave.
Catalina (2017) discussed that when
parents said something, children never even tried to express their own opinion.
They didn’t listen to their children and they knew that. They didn’t raise
their voice in defense of themselves and didn’t even think of slamming the door
of their room or running away from home. Rebellionism wasn’t their thing.
she discussed that children surely know tons of swear words but they just don’t
use them. They were taught that cursing is a habit of bad-mannered, rude people
and it’s actually true. Strict parents want their kids to have good speaking
skills so they set an example and do anything possible to cut swear words out
of the family life.
a literature written by McCollum and Ostrosky (2008), parents also facilitate
their children’s development of friendships by engaging in positive social
interaction with them and by creating opportunities for them to be social with
(2017) emphasized that children learn to control their behavior since they are
young if they have strict parents who often set up boundaries and limits.
Strict parents are also known for having consistency in applying disciplinary
actions. Because of the strict parents and their rules, the children are less
likely to submit to peer pressure or have risky behaviors. Because they are
taught be have this characteristic from a young age, they are less likely to
develop them in adulthood and have better self-control.