Landforms—– during the Paleozoic Era was in the

Landforms—– Max HPlant Life———Hriday/RotchenHow was the earth like——–Max FAnimal life———Hriday/RotchenDUE MONDAY.Max H will print EVERYTHING.Landforms.   Max HaoClimate The climate of the Paleozoic Era changed during different periods. For example The Cambrian was warm worldwide, but following that into the Ordovician Period glaciers started forming, which led to an ice age. At the end of the era when Pangea formed the climate was likely dry, due to the inland parts of Pangea never touching the coast so rain clouds could never come to water the land. Changes to landformOne major change to landforms during the Paleozoic Era was in the Ordovician Period when glaciers formed and sent sea levels downward. Another major change to landforms during the Paleozoic Era was in a division of time called the Carboniferous Period when the Appalachian Mountains formed. At the end of the Paleozoic Era in the Permian Period the continents formed a supercontinent called Pangea.Changes to animalsIn the beginning of the time period many animals underwent a change this event was called the Cambrian Explosion. During the Cambrian Explosion arthropods evolved. Another major change to a living thing in the Paleozoic Era happened 375 million years ago when lungfish evolved into frogs. Also during the Paleozoic Era, (540 million years ago to be exact) moss and mushrooms evolved from algae that lived on land. At the end of the time period 251 million years ago the Permian Mass Extinction wiped out 96 percent of marine animals and 70 percent of land animals.In the Paleozoic Era, life flourished in the seas. After the Cambrian Period came the 45-million-year Ordovician Period, which is marked in the fossil record by an abundance of marine invertebrates. Perhaps the most famous of these invertebrates was the trilobite, an armored arthropod that scuttled around the seafloor for about 270 million years before going extinct. This was the time when plants evolved, though they most likely did not yet have leaves or the vascular tissue that allows modern plants to siphon up water and nutrients. Those developments would appear in the Devonian Period, the next geological period of the Paleozoic. Ferns appeared, as did the first trees. At the same time, the first vertebrates were colonizing the land. These vertebrates were called tetrapods, and they were widely diverse: Their appearance ranged from lizard like to snakelike, and their size ranged from 4 inches (10 cm) long to 16 feet (5 meters) long, according to a study released in 2009 in the Journal of Anatomy. Rise of Fishes- coiled ammonoid cephalopods (descended from the nautiloids) evolved and became the dominant cephalopod hunter in the Devonian- The Devonian is known as the Age of Fishes- jawless fish (agnathans), which had been known only by fossilized scales and bony plates since the Late Cambrian, became common in the middle Paleozoic; they were probably clumsy swimming bottom feeders;- the jawed acanthodian fishes arose in the Silurian, probably as fast swimming predators- the placoderms, which had heavy head and body armor, evolved in the Silurian- the sharks evolved in the Devonian(agnathans, acanthodians, placoderms, and sharks are cartilaginous fishes)- the ray-finned and lobe-finned fishes also arose in the Devonian; they represent the bony fishes; (99% of all bony fish today are ray fins; one group of lobe fins gave rise to amphibians and higher vertebrates)Invasion of the Land (first signs were Late Ord spores and burrows)PlantsMax F.Plant Life: HridayMost plants and bugs lived underwaterLater about 240 millions years, plants started forming on land such as the cycads, glossopterids, primitive conifers, and a few more.Plant life in paleozoic eraLand plants evolved rapidly into the vacant niches afforded them on land. By the end of the Devonian, forests of progymnosperms, such as Archaeopteris dominated the landscape. By the end of the Paleozoic, cycads, glossopterids, primitive conifers, and ferns were spreading across the landscape. Animal life: By Rotchen AlarvaThese two animals are the Cephalaspis and Loricaria fish. These fish lived in the Paleozoic era. These two fish are modern armored fish. The Loricia fish was the first genus fish ( genus means ranks above species and below family).The Cephalaspis fish was heavily armored (as well as the Loricia fish). Presumedly to protect against predators placoderms and eurypterids. This is the picture of the Placoderms and the Eurypterid of fossils of them- in the latest Proterozoic hardened worm burrows appear in the fossil record- hard skeletal parts (the “small shellies”) first appeared in the lowermost Cambrian about 543 m.y.; early skeletal materials were chitinophosphatic; calcium carbonate became the predominant skeletal material as the Cambrian progressed into the Ordovician (and atmospheric oxygen increased to near present levels)- most animal phyla evolved during the Cambrian; all later animal species derive from the basic forms established in the Cambrian- Cambrian animals were “experimental” including many bizarre forms (eg., Burgess Shale species like halucinogenia)- Trilobites were the dominant animal species of the Cambrian; most were bottom scavengers- spongelike Archaeocyathids (probably suspension or filter feeders) built “reefs”- Mollusk bivalves (pelecypods) and snails (gastropods) evolved; pelecypods were not common during the Paleozoic; – the Brachiopods remained the dominant “bivalve” until Permo-Triassic extinctions at the end of the Paleozoic- primitive echinoderms evolved; most were attached forms (e.g., crinoids) with filter feeding tentacles- Upper Cambrian fossil cartilaginous jawless fish is the oldest known vertebrate- simple seaweeds (multicellular algae) were common- the thick cyanobacterial mats of the Proterozoic were decimated by bottom grazers like gastropods (snails)- no land plants or land animals

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