Introduction (David Crystal, 2010, cited in Dr.Muhammad Aslam

Introduction

Language
contact              

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Words
always travel with the people they belong to and become a source of new
vocabulary for other languages (Qandeel Hussain, Rashid Mahmood, Muhammad Asim
Mahmood ,2012). Linguistic borrowing is the outcome of language contact
(Wackernagel, 1904, Winford, 2003, p.10, cited in Qandeel Hussain at el, 2012
). There are three kinds of contact situations, when a conquered group adopts
the language of its conquerors, when the reverse occurs, and when there is
mutual influence leading to a mixed language (Wackernagel, 1904, Winford, 2003,
p.10, cited in Qandeel Hussain at el, 2012 ). Language contact leads to
language change that can be in the form of sound change, semantic change, and
phonological or morphological change (Wackernagel, 1904, Winford, 2003, p.10,
cited in Qandeel Hussain at el, 2012 ). Novel vocabulary items have been
borrowed with the introduction of new technological innovations and foreign
products such as mobile led to the incorporation of other words, such as
casing, keypad, sim, memory card, charger, handfree (Mahmood, and Mahmood
Hussain, 2011).English itself has been an insatiable borrower but today,s
English is a major donor language, a prime source of loaning for many other
languages of the world (David Crystal, 2010, cited in Dr.Muhammad Aslam Sipra,
2013  ). More than 120 languages
contributed towards the present vocabulary of English (David Crystal, 2010,
cited in Dr.Muhammad Aslam Sipra, 2013 
). When there is cultural borrowing , there is always the likelihood
that the associated words may be borrowed too (Edward Sapir, 1921, cited in
Dr.Muhammad Aslam Sipra, 2013  ). Around
7000 languages spoken all over the world (Dr.Muhammad Aslam Sipra, 2013 ). When
languages come into contact, there is transfer of linguistics items from one
language to another due to the borrowing of words (Kachru, 1989 cited in
Dr.Muhammad Aslam Sipra, 2013  ). There
are two hypotheses about the lexical borrowing in languages, one is deficit
hypothesis and other is dominance hypothesis (Kachru, 1994, cited in
Dr.Muhammad Aslam Sipra, 2013  ).
According to deficit hypothesis borrowing entails linguistic gaps in a language
and remedy the linguistic deficit, especially in the lexical resources of a
language (Kachru, 1994, cited in Dr.Muhammad Aslam Sipra, 2013   ). When people start using English in
non-native contexts, it develops as a transplanted language. Kachru (1986:30)
defined transplanted language as,” a language may be considered transplanted if
it is used by a significant numbers of speakers in social, cultural and
geographical contexts different from the contexts in which it was originally
used……a transplanted language is cut off from its traditional roots and begins
to function in new surroundings, in new roles and new contexts”(cited in in
Hafiz Ahmad Bilal at el, 2012).  Bilingualism
in itself is a source of creativity in language and that creativity is
manifested in the form of mixing, switching, alteration and transcreation of
codes(Talaat,2003, cited in Behzad Anwar, 2007).  Languages that are in contact with each other
socially may become changed linguistically (Trudgill, 1986:1 cited in Behzad
Anwar, 2007). language is variable. If structure is at the heart of language,
then variation defines its soul (Sapir, 1921).

 

 Code mixin and borrowing

Code
mixing is the change of one language to another in the same oral or written
text (Myers-Scotton, Boeschoten, and Azuma. 1998, cited in Ho, 2007, Lau Su
Kia, 2011). Code mixing means the lexical items and grammatical features of two
languages that exist in the same sentence (Muysken, 2000, cited in Lau Su Kia,
2011). Muysken (2000, cited in Liu, 2008, Lau Su Kia, 2011) establishes three
categories of code mixing; Insertion (the insertion of well defined chunks of
language B into a sentence that otherwise belongs to language A), Alternation
(the succession of fragments in language A and B in a sentence, which is
overall not identifiable as belonging to either A or B), Congruents
lexicalization (the use of elements from either language in a structure that is
wholly or partly shared by language A and B(p.6). Code mixing is a situation
where language users code mix two or more languages (Nik, 1988, cited in Lau Su
Kia, 2011). Code mixing occurs within the sentential level and usually involves
the use of lexical items (McLaughlin, 1984, cited in Hoffman, 1991, Lau Su Kia,
2011). Using two languages such that a third ,new code emerged, in which
elements from the two languages are incorporated into a structurally definable
pattern is called code mixing (Maschler, 1998, p.125, cited in Lau Su Kia,
2011). Code mixing refers to the mixing of various linguistic units like words,
phrases, clauses, and sentences(Bhatia and Ritchie, 1999,p.244, cited in Lau Su
Kia, 2011). Code mixing is inter sentential and it is motivated by social and
Psychological factors (Bhatia and Ritchie, 1999,p.244, cited in Lau Su Kia,
2011). Code mixing refers to the use of one or more languages for consistent
transfer of linguistic units from one language into another(Kachru, 1978, p.28,
cited in Lau Su Kia, 2011). People with better level proficiency in english use
code switching and people with low level proficiency in english use code mixing
device (Asmah, 1992, cited in Lau Su Kia, 2011). ). There are three ways of
borrowing,1.direct borrowing, with little or no change in the original word.
2.translator of the world which is already available in vernacular. 3. Mixture
of local and foreign language (Dr.Muhammad Aslam Sipra, 2013 ). Borrowing takes
place from the dominating to the subordinate (Dr.Muhammad Aslam Sipra, 2013 ).
The borrowing of foreign words always entail their phonetic modification (
Edward Sapir, 1921, cited in Dr.Muhammad Aslam Sipra, 2013 ). Dr.Muhammad Aslam
Sipra (2013) highlighted four factors which are responsible for borrowing;
Government policies, Media, Social consciousness and Opinion Makers
(Dr.Muhammad Aslam Sipra, 2013 ). Code mixing is a sociolinguistics phenomena
which is frequent among bilingual or multilingual communities (Iftikhar Ahmed
Chughtai, at el, 2016). In comparison with the borrowing in syntax and
morphology, lexical items have the highest ease of borrowing and seem most
likely to occure (Brutt Griffler, 2002; Romaine, 1995, cited in Behzad Anwar,
2007). 

Importance
of English

More
than half of the world,s technical and scientific periodicals are published in
English ( Dr.Muhammad Aslam Sipra, 2013 ). 300 million people speak English as
L2, 100 million people use it as foreign language, 1000 million people  have some knowledge of English
(M.S.Thirumalai,2002, cited in Dr.Muhammad Aslam Sipra, 2013English is the
language of the five of the largest broad casting companies of the world (BBC,
CNN, NBC, CBS, CBC) (Dr.Muhammad Aslam Sipra, 2013 ). With increased
penetration of English into the lives of people, its usage in both formal and
informal contexts is rising day by day (Iftikhar Ahmed Chughtai, Misbah Afsheen
Khan, and Misbah Rosheen Khan, 2016 ). There are 430 million people in the
world who use English as L2 and 330 million use it asL1 (Crystal, 2003:65,
cited in Hafiz Ahmad Bilal at el, 2012). Non-native speakers use English more
than the natives ones (Crystal, 2003, cited in Hafiz Ahmad Bilal at el, 2012). There
are three kinds of English speaker: those who speak it as a first language,
those for whom it is second or additional language and those who learn it as a
foreign languageA1 ((Md.Mokarrom Hossain at el, 2015 ).
Native speakers may feel that the English language belongs to them, but it will
be those who speak English as a second or foreign language who will determine
its world future ((Md.Mokarrom Hossain at el, 2015 ).

History
of English in India(subcontinent)

There
are three phases of English in India i.e. the missionary phase (1614-1765), the
phase of local demand (1765-1835), government policy following TB Macauley,s
Minute of 1835 (Rehman, 1990).From 1600s English has been used in India by the
East India Company and English missionaries(Md.Mokarrom Hossain at el, 2015 ).
From 1800s Christian schools started to deliver education in English
(Md.Mokarrom Hossain at el, 2015 ).  Establishing
of English as a language for education and trade has been firmly founded by the
Minute of 1835(Md.Mokarrom Hossain at el, 2015 ). Kachru, (1983) says that the
Minute of Macaulay showed his desire to creating a class who may be interpreter
between The English and the millions Indians. A class of persons: Indians in
blood and color, but English in taste, in opinion, in morals and in intellect(
cited in Md.Mokarrom Hossain at el, 2015 ). English language has started to
emerge in the 18th and 19th centuries due to the colonial expansion of the
English speaking people (Graddol, 2004, cited in (Md.Mokarrom Hossain at el,
2015). The colonial rule for 190 years has introduced English in
sub-continental education, Since then South Asian people are familiar with
using English in education, business and trade (Md.Mokarrom Hossain at el,
2015). Because of long term affiliation with English in South Asia, people here
started using a type of English that can be called “localized” or “nativized”
English by adopting some unique features of its own, such as sound, intonation
patterns, words, expressions etc (Kachru, 1994; Platt, Weber and Lian 1984).

 

Pakistan
and English

In
Pakistan, power and authority are captured by English and Urdu (Rehman, 2006,
cited in Dr.Muhammad Aslam Sipra, 2013 ).18 million, constituting 11 % of total
Pakistani population, speak English in pakistan making it the 3rd
largest English using Asian country (Boltan, 2oo8, cited in Hafiz Ahmed Bilal,
Ali Abbas Warraich, Nida Fatima, and Talha Rasheed Bhatti, 2012). Pakistani
students are unable to complete their conversation without the help of English
borrowing (Dr.Muhammad Aslam Sipra, 2013 ). Rehman (1990) has categories
Pakistani variety of English into four sub-varieties, which are, Anglicised
English(closer to SBE), Acrolect (differ from SBE in the dimension of
morphology, syntax, lexis, semantics and phonology, used by graduates from elitist
English medium schools), Mesolect (differs from SBE, spoken by people belonging
to middle and upper middle class), and Basilect (used by clerks, minor
officials and typists)( cited in Hafiz Ahmad Bilal at el, 2012). ). The
introduction of English as a compulsory subject, paved the way for English
words to be borrowed (Qandeel Hussain at el, 2012).  A person who knows English is considered to
be an educated one and it has become a symbol of elitism (Qandeel Hussain, 2012
).

History
of urdu

 Urdu was a complex language before, but when
urdu started borrowing English words, it underwent the process of
simplification(Dr.Muhammad Aslam Sipra, 2013 ).   Urdu has long history of lexical borrowing
and always remained victim of foreign languages ,e.g. Arabic, Persian and
English (Qandeel Hussain at el, 2012 ). Urdu is a blend of foreign languages
(Qandeel Hussain at el, 2012 ). Muslims welcomed foreign languages in
subcontinent and adopted a plethora of words which unconsciously gave birth to
a new language to which we know today as Urdu (Sadeed, 2006, cited in Qandeel
Hussain at el, 2012). During the Mughal rule in India the word urdu was used
for lashker(army) (Dr.Muhammad Aslam Sipra, 2013 ). In Turkish, the word Urdu
is used for army even now (Dr.Muhammad Aslam Sipra, 2013 ). During the 12th
century the Indian court was dominated by the Turkish courtiers, so the earlier
form of Urdu was influenced by Turkish language( Dr.Muhammad Aslam Sipra,
2013). Arabic, Persian, Sanskrit, Hindi, and Punjabi are the languages which
influenced Urdu (Dr.Muhammad Aslam Sipra, 2013 ). The earliest writing which
could be called Urdu was the writings of Ameer Khusroo from 1255 A.D to 1325
A.D.( Dr.Muhammad Aslam Sipra, 2013 ). In the book of Syed Mubarak, a quotation
of Baba Ganj Shakkar is written in Urdu (Dr.Muhammad Aslam Sipra, 2013 ). Urdu
came into being with the mixture of Punjabi, Multani, Gujrati, Dakkani dialects
but its original shape developed in Delhi (Dr.Muhammad Aslam Sipra, 2013 ). The
language of U.P was Hindi which is now known as Urdu (Dr.Muhammad Aslam Sipra,
2013 ). By the end of 18th century the poets and writers called Urdu
as the language of Delhi ( Dr.Muhammad Aslam Sipra, 2013). After in dependence
urdu became the national language of Pakistan (Dr.Muhammad Aslam Sipra, 2013 ).
English could not influence Urdu before partition of India for four reasons,
firstly, Urdu was not the national language of the Indian sub-continent but it
was a regional language of Muslims , secondly, the Muslims not only hated the British
but their language also, thirdly, Muslim majority areas were kept ignorant in
British rule, fourthly,the Muslims tried to keep their language urdu free from
corruption (Dr.Muhammad Aslam Sipra, 2013 ).

     

 

      

Urdu-English
contact

 When British came to India , both English and
Urdu were influenced by each other ( Dr.Muhammad Aslam Sipra, 20130). There are
three stages of Urdu-English contact,1. When British tourists came to
sub-continent. 2.When East India Company influenced over the local politics.
3.when British oust the Dutch, the French and the Portuguese from subcontinent
(Dr.Muhammad Aslam Sipra, 2013 ). English replaced Persian in all the fields
including education ( Dr.Muhammad Aslam Sipra, 2013 ). In countries where
English is L2 ,it has become the integral to the working of a country (D,Souza,
2001).  Urdu established contact with the
world through English (Dr.Muhammad Aslam Sipra, 2013 ). In Urdu, loanwords from
Persian and Arabic are for older than English loanwords (Riaz Ahmed Islam,
2011). Certain lexical items may show a shift from their original standard
british English usage to urduished meaning (Talaat,1993).   

 

 

Newspapers

 Newspapers (historical
and contemporary) are full of different kinds of information that can be used
in many ways- for amusement or education and scientific research (Sanjica
Faletar Tanackovic at el, 2014). Newspapers reflect social and cultural values
of certain place and time and often contain unique informations that cannot be
found anywhere else(Sanjica Faletar Tanackovic at el, 2014). Newspapers carry a
reflection of the language structure of a certain time (Sanjica Faletar
Tanackovic at el, 2014). Newspapers are material artifact worth researching,
both in print form and online(Sanjica Faletar Tanackovic at el, 2014).  Online newspapers offer a lot of material for
sociological research (Sanjica Faletar Tanackovic at el, 2014).  Explicit values of newspapers make them
worthy of research in the social sciences and humanities (Sanjica Faletar Tanackovic
at el, 2014).  Scholars such as
historians, linguists, psychologists, scholars from media studies, education
science, information science, publishing, graphic design and other scientific
fields could benefit from newspapers(Sanjica Faletar Tanackovic at el,
2014).  The professional literature
devoted to the topic of newspapers as an information source reflects the
diverse aspects from which newspapers are studied( Sanjica Faletar Tanackovic
at el, 2014). Whitlam and Preston (1998) discussed newspapers as an information
resource in sports journalism (cited in Sanjica Faletar Tanackovic at el,
2014). According to Tibbo (2002) in digital age, historians used newspapers in
their researches as primary resource materials (cited in Sanjica Faletar Tanackovic
at el, 2014).  Hassan, Wade and Wilkinson
(2012) analysed the information needs of historians working with original and
primary resources, particularly local newspaper collections(cited in Sanjica
Faletar Tanackovic at el, 2014).  Sanjica
Faletar Tanackovic at el (2014) conducted a research on newspapers and asked a
question as “what kind of information do you study in the newspapers?” 50.7%
respondents answered that they study newspapers to look for linguistic
characteristics of the text of newspapers. 
Journalists are trained to use language in special ways that could
enhance the overall development of any society (Innocent Ejimofor, 2015). Journalism
is a profession practiced by people who are relatively trained in the art of
information dissemination (Innocent Ejimofor, 2015). In print media words are
choose that would convey specific meaning to their intended or target audience
within a particular thematic framework( Innocent Ejimofor, 2015). According to
Rasul, (2006) Media (print and electronic) has played a vital role in code
mixing of languages because media, language and society are tied closely among
themselves. Columns deal with inside stories of different national and
international issues. Columns are read out to get the deep information about
different issues which are not present in headings or other portions of
newspapers. Ajayi (2002) says that newspapers are a highly rich source of
information, for example newspapers convey local national and international
affairs, up-to-date information on political, health, music, sports,
entertainment, arts, fashion, law, economics, medicine, science and technology
issues. newspapers provides real life situations of effectively acquiring and
using English as a communication tool (Education World, 2011). According to
Clandfield and Foord (2011) newspapers possess of a lot of information written
by experienced writers. They consist of different kinds of texts such as
narrative, stories, letters, advertisements, reports etc. Clandfield and Foord (2011) say that using
newspaper to teach reading and writing demonstrates the concepts of the
structures of English language. It helps students to see realistic examples of
the practical applications of grammar and comprehension. Catherine Happer &
Greg Philo studied the role of the media in the construction of public belief
and social change. They say that media are keys to the setting of agendas and
public interest on particular subject. They says that media affects at
government level, in term of change in policy and at the level of the
individual, through commitments to behavioral change. They also say that
relationship of media content to audience is not singular or one way. Policy
makers for example can both feed information into the media, and also attempt
to anticipate audience response to the manner in which policy is shaped and presentedA2 . Allan Bell studied the language of
news media. Researcher said that media is a source of data for language
features. Media use those language features which are found in ordinary speech
.media also affect language in society. Media language is easier to collect
than conversation. Media language can tell us things about media and about
language. In this article Allen shares a line of McQueen (1969) in which he
says that media live by the size and composition of their audience, in one
formulation, six out of seven characteristics of mass communication f+-ocus on
the audience. Allen also says that audience exercises their influence on the
media through being the audience. Allen also says that mass media is for mass.
Allen says that if the style does not shift to suit the audience, the audience
will shift to style that does suit. Allen used a term style shift, which means
a regular association between language and social situation. Allen also uses a
term initiative style shift which means a relationship between speaker and
audience.

 

 A1Reference??

 A2It
is fine…yet the researches need to be in such way….. the summary of the
research especially the results drawn from it…..and in the end you have to give
gap of your research….

x

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