International a distributed database that delivers computing as

International Journal of Future Generation Communication and Networking
Vol. 5, No. 2, June, 2012

 

 

Database Management System as a Cloud Service

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Yvette E.
Gelogo1 and Sunguk Lee2*

1Society of Science and
Engineering Research Support,

Korea

[email protected]

 

2Research Institute of Industrial Science and
Technology

Pohang,
Gyeongbuk, Korea

 

[email protected]

*Correspondent
Author: Sunguk Lee* ([email protected])

 

Abstract

 

A Cloud database management system is a distributed database that
delivers computing as a service instead of a product. It is the sharing of
resources, software, and information between multiple devices over a network
which is mostly the internet. It is expected that this number will grow
significantly in the future. As a result, there is a growing interest in
outsourcing database management tasks to third parties that can provide these
tasks for much lower cost due to the economy of scale just like putting it into
the cloud. In this paper, we discuss the recent trend in database management
system and the possibilities of making it as one of the services offered in the
cloud. We also proposed an architecture of database management system in the
cloud.

 

Keywords:
DBMS,
Database Management System, Cloud computing

 

1. 
Introduction

 

In recent years, database
outsourcing has become an important component of cloud computing. Due to the
rapid advancements in a network technology, the cost of transmitting a terabyte
of data over long distances has decreased significantly in the past decade. In
addition, the total cost of data management is five to ten times higher than
the initial acquisition cost. As a result, there is a growing interest in
outsourcing database management tasks to third parties that can provide these
tasks for much lower cost due to the economy of scale. This new outsourcing
model has the benefits of reducing the cost for running Database Management
System (DBMS) independently 1. Cloud computing economics leveraging the power
of multi-tenancy delivers extremely fast shared storage at a dramatically
reduced cost. Virtualization then compounds these advantages by enabling users
to scale elastically and to pay only for the resources they use. The
cost/performance advantages have decisively shifted in favor of the shared-disk
DBMS. It is just a matter of time before the shared-disk DBMS establishes
dominance in the cloud.

 

A Cloud database management
system (CDBMS) is a distributed database that delivers computing as a service
instead of a product. It is the sharing of resources, software, and information
between multiply devices over a network which is mostly the internet. It is
expected that this number will grow significantly in the future. An example of
this is Software as a Service, or SaaS, which is an application that is delivered
through the browser to customers. Cloud applications connect to a database that
is being run on the cloud and have varying degrees of efficiency. Some are
manually configured, some are preconfigured, and some are native. Native cloud
databases are traditionally better equipped and more stable that those that are
modified to adapt to the cloud.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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International Journal of
Future Generation Communication and Networking Vol. 5, No. 2, June, 2012

 

 

2. Background

 

2.1 Database Management System (DBMS)

 

A database
management system (DBMS) is a software package with computer programs that
control the creation, maintenance, and use of a database. It allows
organizations to conveniently develop databases for various applications by
database administrators (DBAs) and other specialists. A database is an
integrated collection of data records, files, and other objects. A DBMS allows
different user application programs to concurrently access the same database.
DBMSs may use a variety of database models, such as the relational model or
object model, to conveniently describe and support applications. It typically
supports query languages, which are in fact high-level programming languages,
dedicated database languages that considerably simplify writing database application
programs.

 

2.2 Cloud Characteristics

 

One of the
oft-cited advantages of cloud computing is its elasticity in the face of
changing conditions. For example, during seasonal or unexpected spikes in
demand for a product retailed by an e-commerce company, or during an
exponential growth phase for a social networking Website, additional
computational resources can be allocated on the fly to handle the increased
demand in mere minutes (instead of the many days it can take to procure the
space and capital equipment needed to expand the computational resources
in-house). Similarly, in this environment, one only pays for what one needs, so
increased resources can be obtained to handle spikes in load and then released
once the spike has subsided. However, getting additional computational
resources is not as simple as a magic upgrade to a bigger, more powerful
machine on the fly; rather, the additional resources are typically obtained by
allocating additional server instances to a task 3. Having DBMS in the cloud
will give advantage in fast and elastic computing.

 

3. DBMS as a Cloud Service

 

Most DBMS or
database management systems are simply software packages that users can acquire
to create, maintain or use a database. However, since the introduction of cloud
computing, DBMS has morphed into an entirely new type of service with its own
unique benefits and task specific advantages. For one thing, any type of cloud
service model will have to employ a dedicated cloud DBMS in order to truly
provide customers with excellent access to data and databases. Traditional DBMS’s
are simply not set up or equipped to deal with the demands of cloud computing.
And of course, if DBMS was deployed as a service as part of a larger package
provided, it would likely be much more efficient in its duties and therefore
cheaper in the long run.

 

The concept of the
DBMS has been around since the beginning of commercial computing; such as the
navigational DBMS of the1960’s. Database management systems are one of the
oldest integral components of computing, essentially making it possible to
scan, retrieve and organize data on hard drives and networks. All DBMS, despite
whether traditional or cloud-based, are essentially communicators that function
as middlemen between the operating system and the database.

 

How is a cloud DBMS
different a traditional one? For one thing, cloud-based DBMS are extremely
scalable. They are able to handle volumes of data and processes that would
exhaust a typical DBMS. Despite their scalability however, cloud DBMS are still
somewhat lacking in their ability to scale up to extremely large processes;
this is expected to be remedied in the coming months and years however.
Currently, the use of cloud DBMS’s are principally used in the testing and
development of new cloud applications and processes. But while a stand-alone
DBMS can be used on a cloud infrastructure;

 

 

 

 

 

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International Journal of Future Generation Communication and Networking
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most are not designed to take full
advantage of cloud resources. DBMS as a cloud service-type models seek to
capitalize on the disparity between antiquated DBMS models and their lack of
full cloud functionality.

 

Cloud DBMS may
utilize all of these components or may have devised new strategies that combine
one or more elements (like combining data structures and the data query
language, for example). Many organizations are exploring the option of
utilizing pre-existing modeling languages as a basis for expansion in a cloud
model. This strategy ultimately saves on the time spent developing cloud DBMS’s
as well as enhances their overall effectiveness, since traditional modeling
languages are more than adequate for handling data.

 

Despite the
benefits offered by cloud-based DBMS, many people still have apprehensions
about them. This is most likely due to the various security issues that have
yet to be dealt with. These security issues stem from the fact that cloud DBMS
are hard to monitor since they often span across multiple hardware stacks
and/or servers. Security becomes a serious issue with cloud DBMS when there’s
multiple Virtual Machines (which might be accessing databases via any number of
applications) that might be able to access a database without being noticed or
setting off any alerts. In this type of situation a malicious person could
potentially access pertinent data or cause serious harm to the integral
structure of a database, putting the entire system in jeopardy.

 

There is however a
proposed method for dealing with these types of incongruence. An obvious
solution is the deployment of an autonomous network agent, which rigorously
monitor and defends all activities related to database access. The limitation
of this method however, is that a network agent may be unable to handle
extremely large and dense volumes of activity / traffic.

 

Arguably, the best
solution for dealing with security issues is to employ continuous database
auditing. This involves setting up a system that meticulously records, analyze
and report on all activities regarding database access, especially suspicious
database access. All information regarding these activities is logged and
stored in an extremely remote and secure location with alerts being sent out to
cloud management (or including any other individuals they might have designated
to receive this information) in the event of a breach. This will provide those
in charge of security with the information necessary to determine who is
responsible, where they are located as well as the specifics of their machine /
hardware.

 

While deployment of a dedicated and
thorough cloud DBMS hasn’t occurred yet, it is

 

certainly under development. The
emergence of a comprehensive solution for all cloud service models regarding
database management will open the door to a new era of cloud computing.

 

Many of these cloud databases are
designed to run on a cluster of hundreds to thousands of nodes, and are capable
of serving data ranging from hundreds of terabytes to petabytes. Compared with
traditional relational database servers, such cloud databases may offer less
querying capability and often weaker consistency guarantees, but scale much
better by providing built-in support on availability, elasticity, and load
balancing.

 

On the other hand, data
management tools are an important part of relational and analytical data
management business since business analysts are often not technically advanced
and do not feel comfortable interfacing with low-level database software
directly. These tools typically interface with the database using ODBC or JDBC,
so database software that want to work these products must accept SQL queries.
Therefore, a novel technology to combine DBMS capability with Cloud scale
scalability is highly desirable.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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International Journal of
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4. Why DBMS in Cloud?

 

Database Management Systems as a
cloud service are engineered to run as a scalable, elastic service available on
a cloud infrastructure. These DBMS are available only as a cloud offering and
are not necessarily relational. For example, Microsoft’s SQL Azure is fully
relational DBMS, while Microsoft’s SQL services, Amazon’s simpleDB and Google’s
Big Table are not relational and have different persistence models. Cloud-based
DBMS services are provided in a multi-tenancy environment with elastic
resources allocation, for use in simple to complex transactions. DBMS as a
cloud service excludes those DBMS that will run on the cloud infrastructure,
but are not purpose-built as a cloud service. Most of the currently available
DBMS engines will run on cloud infrastructure, but are not specifically
engineered to take advantage of the cloud. This differentiation is the reason
for the change in name from “DBMS in the Cloud” to “DBMS as a cloud Service”;
running on cloud infrastructure does not define a DBMS as a cloud service 2.

 

All currently available cloud
DBMS are relatively new. SQL azure, the only fully relational DBMS available,
began full production at the beginning of 2012 and still has some size
limitations; Microsoft plans to reduce, and eventually lift, these
restrictions.

 

Today, DBMS as a cloud service
are used primarily for development and testing of applications- where database
sizes are small and issues of security and collocation with multiple users are
not concern. One big advantages of cloud DBMS is their elasticity: the more you
use, the more you pay; the less you use, the less you pay 2.

 

Initially, cloud DBMSs will have
an impact for vendors desiring a less expensive platform for development. As
cloud infrastructure with DBMSs gains maturity especially in scalability,
reliability and security, cloud implementations used for short-term projects
such as small departmental applications and rapid development platforms will
show marked cost reductions compared with implementations within the IT
department. This advantages reinforced by the ability to set up a cloud DBMS
environment without the use of expensive IT personnel. The speed of setup will
be a primary driver to rapid deployment of systems without the usual
requirements and planning necessary for IT projects within the IT department.
This will also reduce the necessity for IT to respond to short notice and short
duration projects, reducing overall costs in IT. Data management applications
are potential candidates for deployment in the cloud. This is because an on
premises enterprise database system typically comes with a large, sometimes
prohibitive up-front cost, both in hardware and in software. For many companies
(especially for start-ups and medium-sized businesses), the pay as- you-go
cloud computing model, along with having someone else worrying about
maintaining the hardware, is very attractive. Due to the ever-increasing need
for more analysis over more data in today’s corporate world, along with an
architectural match in currently available deployment options, we conclude that
read-mostly analytical data management applications are better suited for
deployment in the cloud than transactional data management applications. We
thus outline a research agenda for large scale data analysis in the cloud,
showing why currently available systems are not ideally-suited for cloud
deployment, and arguing that there is a need for a newly designed DBMS,
architected specifically for cloud computing platforms 3.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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International Journal of Future Generation Communication and Networking
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5. DBMS in Cloud Architecture

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 1. DBMS in the Cloud Architecture

 

Above is a proposed DBMS in Cloud
Architecture, first layer is the storage, followed by databases and the upper
layer is application layer. In terms of performance, it provides efficient data
access with a better distribution of values for some data. Stores frequently
used SQL statements in memory, avoiding the need for time-consuming
recompilation at run-time. Produces a detailed report on each step used for
data access, allowing you to accurately implement performance enhancements.
Data is encrypted when stored or backed up, without any need for programming to
encrypt and decrypt.

 

6. Conclusion

 

Database Management Systems as a
cloud service are engineered to run as a scalable, elastic service available on
a cloud infrastructure. Cloud DBMSs will have an impact for vendors desiring a
less expensive platform for development. In this paper, we presented the idea
of DBMS in the cloud, the possibilities to be offered as one of the services
offered by promising capability of cloud computing, that is to be a DBMS as a
Service. In this paper we proposed an architecture of DBMS in the cloud.

 

References

 

1       
Buyya R, Broberg J and Goscinski
A, “Cloud computing Principles and Paradigms”, A Jon Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Publication, (2011).

 

2       
Feinberg D, “DBMS as a Cloud Service”, (2010), Gartner, Inc. and/or its
Affiliates.

3       
Abadi  D,  “Data 
Management  in  the 
Cloud:  Limitations  and Opportunities”,  Bulletin of the IEEE

 

Computer
Society Technical Committee on Data Engineering, (2009).

 

4       
Kellogg D, “DBMS in the Cloud:
Amazon SimpleDB”, http://kellblog.com/2007/12/18/dbms-in-the-cloud-amazon-simpledb/.

 

 

 

 

 

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Future Generation Communication and Networking Vol. 5, No. 2, June, 2012

 

 

5    Gravelle
R, “Should You Move Your MySQL Database to the Cloud?”, http://www.databasejournal.com/features/mssql/should-you-move-your-mysql-database-to-the-cloud.html.

 

6       
Hsieh M, Chang C, Ho L, Wu J and
Liu P, “SQLMR: A Scalable Database Management System for Cloud Computing”, In
Proceedings of ICPP, (2011), pp.
315-324.

 

7       
Hogan M, “Database Virtualization and the Cloud”,
ScaleDB Inc., (2009).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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