In the universe of human endeavour, we can distinguish
sub-divisions of economic, political and social activity – that is, Business,
Government and Society – in every civilization throughout time. Interplay among
these activities creates an environment in which businesses operate. The
environments of business, and the historical forces that shape them, have
profound implications. Simultaneously, the actions of companies and industries
shape not only their external environments but also the deeper course of history.
Business is not simply a passive entity that reacts to
historical and environmental forces. On the contrary, although strongly
constrained by its environment, businesses have a powerful capacity to shape
society and change history in ways large and small. Business seeks and
exercises political power in a government that is extraordinarily open to
influence. Business power, like any form of social power, is intangible, its
exercise not subject to direct or exact calibrations. Having no physical state
to be observed, it is known to be great or small solely by its effects on the
The objective of the project is to:
and analyse the Business relations of the Reliance Industries Limited
and analyse the Government relations of the Reliance Industries Limited
and analyse the Society relations of the Reliance Industries Limited
Government & Society:
social beings and from ages, we have survived by relying on each other by means
of multiple organized forces. Each of these organized forces has its mix of
regulations and process to culminate the optimum functioning of the organized
body. Therefore, to learn and understand
the interaction and interplay between these bodies, we have classified and
distinguished them into three broad subdivisions, which are Business,
Government and Society.
Business encompasses a range of
organized bodies, which covers activities and actions pertaining to management,
manufacturing, finance, trade, service etc. These are usually through a
collective allocation and use of resources to achieve specific declared goals,
which are mostly involved in the provision of goods and services to customers
and fundamentally make a monetary profit of it.
Government is (are) the group of people
and institutions, which make and apply rules and policies. It also exercises
and exerts Sovereign authority over a state and nation or any other body of
people. Usually tasked with protection of the populace of both external and internal
threats, managing currency and economy with the policies and regulations they
Society is a cooperative network of
human relations, which are organized by flows of power and relatively distinct
in its boundaries from other analogous networks. Composed of three element
which are: 1) Ideas, 2) Institutions and 3) Material things.
The study of
this is important as any organization whether in the Business, Government or
Society field interact with other organizations in the subdivisions. No
organization can function alone and therefore all co-exist, dependent and the
action of one complement and affect the functioning of the other.
If we look at
from a company’s point of view, we need to recognize that a company operates
not only within the market but also within the society. It is because if the
company’s actions are not accepted by the society, the firm will not be able to
go through with their objectives and make profits. In addition, companies are important to a
nation as they are the core contributors of development for a country which is
in line with the objectives if the government. The Government also needs to
keep in touch with the needs of the society as the leaders elected by the
people run the institutions of the government. Thus, the government has to
balance development and socialistic views for the country. This is reflected in
the regulations made for the companies, so as the companies do not fall in the
bad books of the government as the government as the power to penalize the
companies heavily and revoke their business options. Which is why a complete
and through understanding of the interactions between these entities are
Reliance Industries Limited:
Industries Limited is an Indian holding company in the Business sub-division
(from the three major sub-divisions). With an annual sale of USD 20 billion and
total assets of USD 21billion it has its presence in the fields of Energy,
petrochemicals, textiles, natural resources, retail and telecommunications with
its products and services reaching across the globe to around 100 countries. It
is also the most profitable and the largest publicly traded company in India.
The company was
founded by the Ambani brothers Dhirubhai and Ramnikbhai in the 1960s as a
partnership and in 1965 the partnership ended and Dhirubhai Ambani got hold
over the reins which he used to continue the Polyester business which led to
the culmination of the Reliance Textile Industries Pvt. Ltd. in 1966.
In 1985, the
name changed from Reliance textile Industries Pvt. Ltd. to Reliance Industries
Limited, the name that we are so familiar with. To further their foray into
other markets, the Hazira petrochemical plant was commissioned in 1991-92 and
in 1993, Reliance looked into the Overseas Capital Market through the issue of
onwards, the company delved into the Telecom Industry and in 1998 RIL oved in
packaged gas (LPG) under the brand name reliance Gas. The company moved into
the retailing sector with the introduction of Reliance Fresh in 2006 and the
broadband services in 2010 with the acquisition of Infotel broadband services.
In 2016, Reliance set up a disruption in the Telecom market with the introduction
of Reliance Jio.
been a pioneer in the various in India and continues to do so. With franchises
such as IPL, Reliance TV etc. under its belt it has never stopped diversifying
and moving into new segments and influencing these markets.
also been a key investor in development plans of India. Unlike many major
Multi-National, RIL heavily invests in India and these can be reflected on the
projects like for example Jio. Reliance
Jio is RIL’s 4G (LTE) services, which has caused a major disruption in the
telecom market in 2016. It has had a huge impact in all the three divisions
i.e. Government, Business and Society. In the Business aspect, it has caused a
revolution in the market and brought about innovation. It has also forced competitors
to up their game and change their playstyle of customer service. In the domain
of the society, it has brought to the masses ease of use of data at a cheaper
price, which can be seen by its popularity and subscription in such a short
notice. The Society in fact lauds Jio for its achievements and encourages such
an approach. On the other hand, the government has kept a check on Jio so that
the telecom industry does not become monopolistic as it was driving many of its
competitors to losses. The government therefore regulated it by asking Jio to
withdraw its Summer Surprise offer. In addition, the government also supported
Jio’s innovation by supporting its expansion and ruling in favour of Jio when
its competitors deliberately refused to connect Jio calls with their services.
example, we can therefore see a small glimpse of interaction of Reliance
Industries Limited with Business, Government and the Society about which we
will go in depth later.
H1: There exists a significant
relationship between the Reliance Industries Limited and the Government
H2: There exists a significant
relationship between the Reliance Industries Limited and the Society
H3: There exists a significant
relationship between the Reliance Industries Limited and other Businesses and
Forces in Business, government
and society have been fundamental in shaping the world as it is today. They work together to create better solutions in all the three
– It encompasses a range of actions and institutions and satisfies human needs
by providing them products and services in exchange for profit.
– A structure
and process in society that has the authority to make and apply policies and
rules. The economic and regulatory powers of the government are the primary
facets that affect a business.
Society – A cooperative network of human relations
composed of ideas, institutions, and material things that interact with each other.
It is organised by flows of power.
models describe the relationship among business, government and society:
Capitalism Model – It believes that
Ø Government regulation should be limited
Ø Market will discipline private economic activity to
promote social welfare
Ø The proper measure of corporate performance is profit
Ø The ethical duty of managers is to promote the
interests of owners and investors
Model – It believes that
Ø Corporations are insulated from pressures holding them
Ø Regulation by a government in thrall to big business
Ø Market forces are inadequate to ensure ethical
Forces Model – It believes that
Ø Business is deeply integrated into an open society and
must respond to both economic and non-economic forces
Ø It is not isolated from any part of the society nor is
it always dominant
Model – It believes that
Ø A corporation that embraces stakeholders prospers
& sustain its wealth creating function better with the support of a network
of parties beyond shareholders
Ø It is the ethical way to manage because stakeholders
have moral rights that grow from the way powerful corporations affect them
power that the Reliance Industries Limited wields on the common masses and the
ruling government, we believe that the Dominance model would best describe
RIL’s relationship with the Government, Society and other corporations. However,
this assumption will be verified in the following sections using secondary data
such as industry reports and news articles.
The dominance model represents the perspective of people
who critic businesses. A small group of privileged (corporations, government
and business leaders) control the pyramid within which lies the society. Power
and wealth are focused in a select group. In this model, the society has no
authority or control but is under the foot of the businesses and government.
The corporations and the government take advantage of the society. Businesses
have very high power and changes in the systems become crucial.
Ralph Nader, an American political activist, author,
lecturer, and attorney who is noted for his involvement in consumer protection,
environmentalism, and government reform causes, said: “The Corporations… have become
our Government… and both parties are moving deeper into the grip of global
corporatism. Corporate power over our political economy and its control over
people’s lives knows few boundaries”
H1: Relationship between Reliance Industries Limited
The Hypothesis H1 states that there is a significant
relationship between the Reliance Industries Limited and the Government. In
this section, we attempt to prove this hypothesis using historical instances
from industry reports and news articles.
Instance 1: Mukesh Ambani’s speech
at the Reliance’s “intelligent” phone launch speaks for the corporate
cultures and private–public sector relationship in India.
Mukesh Ambani’s live speech on the launch of Jio was widely
compared to Steve Jobs’ speech on the launch of the i-Phone. However, the
difference between the two speeches starkly highlights the make-up of society,
the culture of corporates as well as the relationship between the private and
public sector in India and the United States. Sample of some of Ambani’s
to the Prime Minister on several occasions, Ambani piggybacked on the country’s
most influential political figure. Ambani puts on the veil of patriotism and
socialism to please his target audience and the government.
tremendous progress, India continues to be a closed economy in sectors such as
telecom and power, where being in favourable terms with the government, still
India’s biggest business entity, can ensure large and lasting profits. To
survive in the market and to succeed in businesses, the support of the
government is inevitable. The Reliance Industries Limited has been a key
beneficiary of the said system.
speech emphasized social upliftment and patriotism, thus sending out a message
to the government that the Reliance Industries Limited is aligning its goals
with the Government’s, thereby making his company the only deserving candidate
for huge government schemes such as the Digital India. Similarly, Jio Phone was
never intended to be a disruptive product, but only a way that helps the
government realise its target of universal internet connectivity.
American and Western European companies who are focus on investing in their own
nations do not portray their products or services as ones that will benefit
their government’s targets to. Besides, the India’s biggest business tycoon has
showcased similar sentiments for other governments as well. Other big Indian
corporations such as HUL, Tata and ITC, too, make sure that they appease the government
through their annual reports and events.
developing economies are characterised by the dependence of the Corporations on
the Governments. A survey of senior company executives from McKinsey in 2010 confirms
this. On every criteria, the respondents from developing countries were much
more concerned about the government than those in developed economies.
government has no business being in business’ is a cherished ideal. Corporate speeches will be a
leading indicator of India’s move towards that ideal.
Instance 2: Gas Price Raise to
solely benefit RIL?
The ruling Government of India had been
accused of raising the gas prices primarily to benefit the Reliance Industries
Limited with a whopping 1.2 lakh crore rupees despite incurring an additional
cost of about 54,000 crore rupees every year. The Chief Minister of Delhi, Mr.
Arvind Kejriwal brought the issue to light.
Instance 3: India’s Reliance Jio
got $530 million undue benefit: government auditor
The Government Auditor has claimed that
the telecom wing of the Reliance Industries Limited’s has gotten an undue benefit
of about $530 million since the Indian government gave the unit permission to
offer its voice services over the wireless broadband spectrum that it had won way
back in the year 2010.
The telecommunications department has been accused
of allowing the Reliance Jio to migrate from being an internet service provider
to a full services provider at a cost that is much lower than the prevailing
market prices. The migration had been allowed at price levels seen in 2001.
The government’s lapses resulted “in
an undue advantage of 33.67 billion rupees ($528.56 million)” for the
unit, Reliance Jio, “due to non-accounting of time value of migration fees,” the
comptroller and auditor general of India said in a report. The report also mentions
that the airwave buyers did not roll out obligations, though it has been four
years since the auction has happened.
The above-mentioned historical instances clearly
portray the Reliance Industries Limited to have an amicable, if not favoured,
relationship with the Government of India. Hence, we can conclude that there
exists a significant relationship between the Reliance Industries Limited and