In commitment according to Luthans (1999) has been

In the era of constantly increasing competition in
all work sectors, it is essential to have the highest graded employees with all
round excellence. For all around excellence, it is not just the technical knowledge
that counts, it is also about various behaviours and skills. Organizations are
always in need of workforce high on commitment, responsibility and sincerity.
This holds a lot more importance when it comes to private sector employment owing
to the current economic conditions and hence job insecurities.  Not just the capital outcome but the
behaviours and soft skills of an employee play a major role in helping them
retain their job profiles or seeking appraisals.

The development of these behaviour and skills in an
employee are considered to be learnt ones, and dynamic in nature. It is
believed that with increasing work experience, interest for the job profile,
workplace environment and culture, these behaviours are learnt and developed.

Commitment has been considered as a fundamental
trait for successful individuals and even organizations ever since.
Organizational commitment according to Luthans (1999) has been defined as an
employee’s loyalty to the organization, willingness to effort on behalf of the
organization, associated with the acceptance of the organization’s goals and
values and desire to maintain membership.  It consists of three different constructs
namely: affective commitment, continuance commitment, and normative commitment.

Organizational commitment has been an area of
interest for a lot of management researchers in the last few decades. From a
lot of studies, it can be gathered that organizational commitment is one of the
most influential predictors of organizational citizenship behaviour.

Organizational citizenship behaviour unlike
organizational commitment, is technically an optional attitude or behaviour
that was not conventionally overtly recognized by organizations. With changing
work environment and productivity requirements, managers have started to
recognize OCB in the formal reward system as it is said to improve
effectiveness and output. OCB has been described as the behaviour of an
individual that is voluntary and optional, directly or explicitly is not
recognized by the formal reward system, and overall improves the organizational
function. There are five basic dimensions to citizenship behaviour: conscientiousness,
altruism, sportsmanship, courtesy and civic virtue. (Organ, 1988 and 1994)

With increasing work on employee welfare and
development, studying various aspects of employment behaviour has been
trending. According to existing research studies, the constructs of job
involvement, job satisfaction, commitment etc. have been widely explored in
relation to productivity, output, employee turnover and efficiency. Management researchers
have widely explored the relationship between organizational commitment, job
involvement and organizational citizenship behaviour. The effect of affective
organizational commitment on citizenship behaviour have also been researched
upon. The idea behind the present study is to explore the influences of all the
three types of organizational commitments i.e. affective, continuance and
normative on organizational citizenship behaviour and the gender differences if
any, specifically in the Indian context as there is limited published research
work in that area. Also, the present research work can prove to be helpful in
employee development in all kind of organizations.

 

Research Problem Statement:

Although there have been many researches on the
constructs of organizational commitment and organizational citizenship
behaviour, along with job involvement, job satisfaction, efficiency and
productivity, there is a lack of data on how commitment influences citizenship
behaviour. Also, there are limited published researches on the same in the
Indian context. There is no available data that explains the gender differences
in commitment and citizenship behaviour. The idea behind the present study is
to understand how organizational commitment influences organizational
citizenship behaviour in the Indian context and to understand if there are any
differences based on gender.

Rationale:

Theoretically and empirically, organizational
commitment has been found to be a predictor of citizenship behaviour. It has
been found that affective commitment is the most important part of commitment
to predict citizenship behaviour. It has been seen that employees with high
emotional commitment, aspects of friendships and work ethics tend to be more
productive, and even sacrifice their own self for goal attainment. On the contrary,
of finances i.e. continuance commitment and obligatory retainment i.e.
normative commitment and their effect on citizenship behaviour has not been
studied in depth. To understand these aspects of commitment such as affect, it
is essential that the concepts are studied on employees with a reasonably good
amount of work experience. Financial aspects and obligation to continue with an
organization can also be important factors affecting citizenship behaviour as
after a certain point in life, people look for financial stability to fulfil their
needs with easy. Also, there can be differences among males and females as to
how commitment influences citizenship behaviour in them. The present study
shall focus on all these and add to the existing research.

 

 

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

Organizational behaviour is the study of beliefs,
attitudes and behaviours displayed by individuals at a work place under
different circumstances and situations. The core goal of each organization is
to attain optimum productivity and maintain employee welfare.

For the same, organizational commitment is a
necessity as that is the trait one requires to get the work done. Organisational
commitment is an employee’s loyalty to the organization, willingness to exert
effort on behalf of the organization, associated with acceptance of
organization’s goals and values and desire to maintain membership. (Organ,
1988)

A three-component model of organizational commitment
was devised by Meyer and Allen (1991), which proposed that there are three
types of commitments which correspond to different psychological states or mind
sets. The three components are:

Affective Commitment: It is the desire component of
commitment where in employee’s positive emotional attachment to the
organization comes in to play. The employee takes up responsibility and fulfil goals
because he/she desires to out of their own will and to remain a part of the
organization.

Continuance Commitment: The component incorporates
the need aspect on the part of an employee or the gains versus losses of being
associated to an organization. Here, there is a willingness to remain in an
organization because of the investment that the employee has with non-transferable
investment.

Normative Commitment: Here, individuals remain or
commit to an organization out of a sense of obligation towards the
organization. Employees stay with organizations because he/she ought to due to
a moral obligation or to repay the debt.

More recently, scholars added two more components to
the three-component model, making it a five-component model of organization
commitment. The new components are habitual commitment i.e. individuals stay in
an organizations because they get used the routine, process and cognitive
schemas associated with a job can make people develop a latent commitment to
the job, and forced commitment i.e. an employee gets bound to work in an
organisation due to various financial, psycho-social and other personal
reasons.

Organizational citizenship behaviour according to
Organ (1997) is described as the behaviour of an individual that is voluntary
and optional, that is not directly or explicitly not recognized by the formal
reward system, and overall improves the organization function. Oregon (1997)
explained organizational citizenship as a function that supports the social and
psychological environment of organization where the tasks and duties are
performed, is supported. The concept of citizenship was further classified into
five dimensions: altruism, conscientiousness, sportsmanship, courtesy and civic
virtue.

Scholars have empirically put forward that
commitment to organizations effect the degree to which an employee exhibits
citizenship behaviour.

In the recent most research study by Leyla Khaley
and Sadeyali Naji (2016) in Iran, aimed at understanding the relationship
between the components of organizational commitment and organizational
citizenship behaviour in nursing staff, was conducted in the form of a survey
on 130 nurses based on their availability. From this descriptive-correlational
research, it was found that there was no significant relationship between the
affective and normative components of commitment with citizenship behaviour.

Another similar study in Iran by Kaveh Hasani et al
in 2013, in the educational sector was conducted, aimed at finding the relationship
between organization citizenship behaviour and organizational commitment using
the descriptive-correlative method on a sample of 1225 employees. The results
showed a significant relationship between OCB and organizational commitment
along with all the three components separately. This was supported by arguments
like, teachers and professors tend to develop an emotional connect with their
discipline and students leading them to exhibit citizenship behaviours such as
altruism and conscientiousness.

In a study conducted at the Islamic Azad University
by Moslem Salehi in 2011, the relationship between job satisfaction, job burnout
and organizational commitment on OCB was explored on a sample of 341
participants chosen using stratified sampling method. Using Pearson’s correlation
coefficient and multiple regression, it was found that job satisfaction and
organisational commitment had a positive effect on OCB whereas, job burnout had
a negative effect. These results were supported by emotional attachment, sense
of responsibility and loyalty to work.

Another study was conducted in Aston University,
Birmingham by Thaneswor Gautam et al in 2005 to study the structure of OBC and
its relation to organizational commitment in Nepal. For the sample, a sample of
450 participants was chose from different Nepalese organizations and standardized
questionnaires were administered. The results revealed that there was a
positive relationship between affective and normative commitment and OCB and
that continuance commitment was negatively related to OCB. The study quotes the
limitation of socio-cultural context wherein loyalty to work and work place is
highly valued and practiced.

There have been studies in the past that contradict
these findings. In a study conducted by Larry Williams and Stella Anderson in
1991, aimed at understanding job satisfaction and organizational commitment as
predictors of OCB, it was found that variables of organizational commitment
were not significant predictors of OCB but job satisfaction was.  

With the existing researches, it is evident that
organizational commitment has influence on OCB. Since, there are mixed results
and most of the researches have focused more on the affective commitment
aspect, the present study will also try to find out the influence of normative
and continuance commitment on OCB. Along with this, the present study will also
aim at explore the gender differences in the exhibition of   commitment and citizenship behaviour which
lacks in the existing researches. Also, there is limited or no published research
that has been carried out specifically in the Indian context which shall be
taken care of in the present study.

With changing work environment and conditions, the
characteristics required out of an employee are also constantly evolving.
Thought the technical knowledge and formal education is the primitive need,
certain behavioural traits are also essential for maintaining a productive environment,
welfare and output. Commitment and citizenship behaviour are two things that
make up a workplace beyond just the monetary gains and capital output. It is
the employees that make up an organization and way they relate to the organization
and work to attain goals beyond monetary gains. These behaviours develop with
the years of being associated to an organization and understanding the
organizational norms.

According to Organ and Ryan (1995), commitment accounts
as an antecedent to OCB quoting that employees attached to an organization will
have greater motivation or desire to make a meaningful contribution to the
organization. This emotional attachment develops over a prolonged period of
association and consequently a sense of commitment to the organization is
developed after spending a reasonable time with the organization. With the
sense of attachment, loyalty and hence commitment, employees tend to do little
things for the organization and co-workers that they are not formally required
to do, to help them, creating an effective work environment.  

The present study will focus on individuals with a
reasonable amount of work experience to understand if organizational commitment
influences organizational citizenship behaviour as, with increasing age and
experience, the way commitment to the workplace is perceived evolves. On the
contrary for freshers or contractual employees, the amount of time they invest
with the organization or their experience with the organization if not enough
to develop an attachment to the organization.

This study can prove to be helpful for managers to
develop a better understanding of employee behaviours and give an insight on
what is required out of the organization and its employees for better
productivity.

 

Research question:

Is there an influence of organizational commitment
on organization citizenship behaviour?

Aim:

To study the influence of organizational commitment
on organizational citizenship behaviour.

Specific Objectives:

To study the influence of organizational commitment
on organizational citizenship behaviour.

To study the gender difference in the level of
affective commitment among young working adults.

To study the gender difference in the level of
continuance commitment among young working adults.

To study the gender difference in the level of
normative commitment among young working adults.

To study the gender differences in organization
citizenship behaviour among young working adults.

To study the gender differences in the influence of
three different dimensions of organizational commitment as a whole on
organization citizenship behaviour among young working adults.

Hypotheses:

There is a significant influence of organizational
commitment on organizational citizenship behaviour.

There is a significant level of gender difference in
the level of affective commitment among young working adults.

There is a significant level of gender difference in
the level of continuance commitment among young working adults.

There is a significant level of gender difference in
the level of normative commitment among young working adults.

There is a significant level of gender differences
in organization citizenship behaviour among young working adults.

There is a significant level of gender differences
in the influence of three different dimensions of organizational commitment as
a whole on organization citizenship behaviour among young working adults.

 

METHODOLOGY

Research Design:

Non-experimental correlational research design

Variables:

Independent variable- Organizational commitment

Dependent variable- Organization citizenship
behaviour

Operational Definitions:

Organizational commitment- It is an employees’
feeling or attitude towards the organization. It is the degree to which he/she
exhibits loyalty, sincerity and effort in their job role to attain the required
targets.

Affective commitment- It is the degree to which an
employee shows emotional attachment and involvement with the organization and
its goals.

Continuance commitment- It is the willingness of an
employee to continue with an organization due to the financial provisions by
the organization and the non-transferable investments made by the employee.

Normative commitment- This type of commitment comes
into play when an employee is obligated work in the same organization due to
various psycho-social, financial and personal reasons.

Organizational citizenship behaviour- It is a discretionary
behaviour, not formally recognized or is not a pre-requisite for employment but
tends to promote effective functioning in organizations.