In and other surface waters. Domestic and Industries

In
the last few decades, the rapid industrial development has added enormous loads
of pollutants to our water resources such as rivers, lakes and streams. About
70 percent of the Earth’s surface is the water that is the most precious
natural resource that exists on earth.
Water pollution might occur when a body of water is adversely
affected due to the addition of huge amounts of pollutants to the water system. Humans and
other organisms produce wastes product which finally will enter rivers, lakes,
oceans and other surface waters.

 

Domestic
and Industries waste products produce a variety of compounds might causes
decreasing of dissolved oxygen which is important to support aquatic life. The
major concern nowadays is the problems that related to the water pollution, especially in
developing countries because around 3.2 million children die every year because
of unsafe drinking water and also poor sanitation (Amir, 2016). The pollution
issues are become serious concern especially when the pollutions are involves
with the released of chemicals into our environment and disrupt the balance
ecosystem, threatening human health and polluting the water resources. Thus, steroid
hormone is one of the chemicals that released continuously by human and animal
into the environment and causing many bad effect to the ecosystem ( Lintelmann et al., 2003; Drewes and Shore, 2001; Shore and
Shemesh, 2003).

Endocrine
disruptive compounds (ECDs) are a group of chemical that have the higher potential
 to the carcinogenic threats to the human
population and also  their ability to
interfere with hormonal system (Omar et
al., 2016).  The sources of the ECDs  are from the industrial chemicals and
household products that such as synthetic hormones, polycyclic
aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), pharmaceuticals, and pesticides. These ECDs are
found in a high variety of products that are used in our daily life such as
detergent, personal care products and pharmaceutical.  Therefore, without realizing it humans are
keep discharges these exogenous pollutants every day into our environment. These
products that contain ECDs will be flow out into drain, wastewater treatment
plant and finally back into our water resource which is river and causes
threats to the safety of the aquatic and human environment.

 

 The main cause
of concern with the EDCs is their high tendency to accumulate in human and also
aquatic life that will cause the feminization and also infertility problems. At
certain doses the EDCs can interfere with the endocrine system by mimicking and
blocking the natural hormone (Komesli et al., 2015). Thus, the receptor are blocked and cannot be activated, even the
natural hormone are present. EDCs are the chemical that are suspected to be
related with altered of the reproduction function of female and also male (WHO,
2017). The effect from these problems, there are many cases of infertility
faced by couples especially in Sabah. Due to this problem, high number of fertility
services, fertility specialist Clinic and Fertility and Reproductive Research
Centre are found in Kota Kinabalu, Sabah. Based on the previous studied, the study
about ECDs are still lack of information because of their trace amount
detection is still low.