I’m here to show you the tiny wonders inside practically everything, cells! There are two types of cells, eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. Plants have plant cells, Bacteria have prokaryotic cells, and you along with every other animal on Earth have eukaryotic cells. That’s why it’s called YOU-karyotic (not really). Anyway, the entire point of this book is to teach you, yes you, about what these are along with what’s inside them; and so that I can get this cell project over with. Let’s get started!
The Cell MembraneThe Cell Membrane is the outermost layer of the cells that controls what goes in and out of the cell. Basically, it’s the gatekeeper or bouncer of the cell. It’s mostly made of phospholipids and proteins; making him very beefy like this guy.
Nucleus and Company The Nucleus is the control center/ mayor of the cell; that means it tells the cell specifically what to do. DNA can be found inside it along with the nucleolus. It’s kinda like the factory worker where it’s job is to manufacture ribosomes. Chromatin can also be found inside the nucleus; it’s made of DNA and proteins.
Ribosomes Remember ribosomes? They’re made by the nucleolus while also being made of rRNA and protein. Coincidentally, their purpose is to make proteins; making them the butcher of the cell.
Endoplasmic Reticulums En-do-plas-mic Re-tic-u-lums come in two variants, smooth and rough. Both make then transport proteins and lipids; making them the UPS of the cell; if UPS when into butchery. The only difference between them is that the Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum is bound with ribosomes, who make the proteins.
Golgi Body / Complex / ApparatusThe Golgi Apparatus is a series of membranes that are stacked on top of each other forming a structure that looks like a stack of pancakes; if said pancakes were made by aliens. It’s job is to modify, sort, and package proteins for expulsion from the cell. Basically, it’s the Amazon of the cell.
Mitochondria The mitochondria is the powerhouse of the cell. More specifically, it makes ATP energy for the cell through cellular respiration. I could go more in depth than that, or I could just wait for the actual unit we’ll have on cellular respiration.
Lysosome Only found in animal cells, lysosomes are digestive enzymes that are surrounded by membranes that digest proteins, fats and carbohydrates. Put simply, it’s the cell’s “stomach”.
CytoskeletonThe cytoskeleton is a complex network of interlinking microtubules and microfilaments. Microtubules are hollow tubes that aid in the cell’s movement like the flagella or cilia. Microfilaments are thinner than microtubules that also help with the cell’s movement while also supporting it. To put into perspective, microtubules are like subways while microfilaments are like pieces of thread.
CentriolesCentrioles are organelles that can only be found in animal cells because their job is to organize chromosomes. They’re also made of microtubules and can be found in groups of 9.
Cell Wall Cell Walls can only be found in plant and bacterial cells. Plant cells only have the cell walls so that it can protect them and so that they can take the shape of their cell wall. That’s important because it gives them the ability to grow up and out, where they can get lots of sunlight for making their food. Think of it as the Great Wall of America.
ChloroplastsChloroplasts are also only found in plants. They make food and oxygen from collecting sun-light and carbon dioxide. Like the golgi apparatus, they made of stacks of membrane. They’re like the farmer of the cell.
Vacuoles Vacuoles contain a water solution that stores, digests, and provides waste removal. They’re like the water tower of the cell. In plant cells, large vacuoles can be found where nuclei are usually found in animal cells.