How the research of Dickman (1980, p. 567),

How the cultural valuation afforded to men and masculinity
and women and femininity in society might interfere with gender equality?


It has been found
by the study of many anthropologists that woman has subordinate status as
compared to men in most of the societies existed worldwide. This study will
discuss the impact of gender inequality
in our society, how cultural values regarding gender discrimination propagate
in organisational processes. Moreover,
this study will illustrate gender segregation is rising through the organisation in the light of Acker’s theory. It
has been a part of the debate that the male
is more involved in organisational
affairs then females. This study will also throw light on the impact of cultural values on masculinity and



This study
elaborates the discrimination of gender which is set by different cultural
values incorporated in the society. From the beginning,
the inequality of gender has its origins in social and cultural issues. It has become a debate after the modern movement of
feminism. In every social circumstance, the supremacy of male is beyond denial
(Epstein 2007, p.5). But as
the times passes women acquire a dominant place in the field of business.


of Gender Inequality

Gender bias and
inequality persist in the society and it is started from home to school.
According to the research of Dickman
(1980, p. 567), in school, almost every
woman suffered from inappropriate and inadequate science knowledge which had an
effect on their confidence level and it
developed a fear of teaching science
among them. From birth, both male and female are raised with different cultural
values and gone through with different situations throughout the lives. This
incorporates different visions and perspectives among them and both possess
diverse personalities and stay on different paths (Cordier 2012, p.457).


Inequality in Workplace

Gender inequality
or prejudice occurs due to out-dated personal and traditional perceptions about
masculinity and femininity. When the topic ‘gender inequality’ comes, it is
generally preferred to women who are the victims at workplace and face lot of
troubles due to gender bias and discrimination. The study analyses gender difference in an organisation. Since the 21st century, the issue of gender inequality has been
prevailing in many workplaces.
Organisations have their own rules and practices that promote the race, gender,
class discrimination (Huffman, 2010, p.255). From manager to trainee there is
hierarchical structure based on the powers and authorities. It has been
observed that critical projects were not assigned to women staff. Due to this
prejudice, the system workplaces have been facing a great hurdle to integrate with other society.


segregation is partly created through organisational

Gender segregation and differences
that women face due to the conservative
mentality of the society that creates hindrance in their way of progress.The study endures the word ‘class difference and
gender difference’ as the difference of control over resources for the provision of services (Acker 2006, p.441).

By the study of Kvande and
Rasmussen (1994, p. 163) it has been found that woman in small organisation gained more prominence status and recognise with more progress than in the big bureaucratic environment. Although, women
have to face some challenges of workplace
and family responsibility they flourish due to less masculine aggressive
culture. In a big organisation male are
more autonomous and have more managerial authority than female.

Gender segregation persists in
many organisations and in observed at
every operational level. Men dominate in
most of the organisation like mining or
oil refinery industry due to critical risk factors that are considered that male is
more feasible to handle these situations. According to Acker (1990, p.140), gender segregation at work includes
prejudice in income, status along with paid and unpaid task assigned in workplaces. Masculinity is involved in most of
the organisational processes. Feminist
projects are introduced to introduce democracy in large organisations.


Income and
status inequality also partly created through organisational

Gender discrimination in pay or designation
appointed to women in the workplace.
Women are not provided authorities and autonomy as men possess. Men usually
have appointed on high pay and women are kept on low pay as compared to them. This
is a common practice that is strongly rooted in most of the organisations. It also seems that women are assigned same task assignment and job
responsibilities with different job status and titles as compared to men who
are engaged in similar tasks. It is also a major issue that comes under the
light of gender bias and inequality that women have to take leave for maternity
but they have to suffer for it as their salary is to be deducted (Acker 2012,

 The most common practice in the society is that the multinational companies do not
promote bonuses to women. Women who are doing part-time jobs have no extra
holiday and they do not get an extra
salary for overtime. Some workplaces
follow gender inequality and assume that employees should have to improve their
interpersonal skills overnight. In these circumstances,
women got frustrated and the organisation
has to suffer the losses. There are some civil laws like equal pay act that ensures
that women should have to pay equally as men if working on same designations (Kay et.el 2009, p.421).


Masculinity; the
Product of Organisational Processes

Men and women have different
perspectives and capabilities in acquiring any skill. Men learned faster than women and are independent
to complete that task. Men have directive
nature whereas; women need some
assistance to accomplish the novel task
assigned to them. So women and men have to face differences in the workplace. According to Hahn & Litwin; techniques
encounter to handle certain tasks can be differentiated easily by employees’ gender.  Both men and women acquire a different sense of capabilities and skill to
solve the problems of the workplace. Also, they both have a different way of style of tackling the problems. This creates
discrimination in organisational

Gender discrimination in the working environment is generated due to
physical and emotional factors. These are the factors that directly affect the
working environment. These behaviours are
ultimate outcomes of the upbringing environment. Men do not bother to shout and
show his anger at the workplace while
women are supposed to maintain the ethics of workplace.
Differences in workplaces may arise due
to gender stereotypes of male and female that considers male as earning
provider and supporter of the house and women should be left at home for family

Differences in cultural values are
reflected in the upcoming generation. For
instance, baby boomers are dedicated and
committed people that may not be afraid of unemployment (Davis, Pawlowski &
Houston 2006, p.430). Similarly, female who is
competent with men at academic level might have a different perspective and organisational
practices in their professional careers.
They both have conflicts in the workplace
regarding problem-solving techniques (Hopkins
et. al. 2008, p.348). It is possible that both are right as per their
perspective but they do not agree with
each view due to gender inequality as
both possess different thinking criteria.

The impact of gender inequality
lies in the social and economic culture.
These differences are inherited from the family
background (Njajou 2007, p.12135). There is a major
difference in the mentality of a person
coming from small town or person coming from the large metropolitan city. For instance, Germany; recognised as it has one of the fastest and
hectic paces of business transactions (Colette
2013, p.88). So a person coming from this country has vast ideas for solving any problem rising in the workplace.

Gender discrimination has a great impact on the society, especially in
an organisation. Ethnicity is also
counted and considered as an outcome of gender inequality that different
cultures are formed on the basis of values, rules and regulations that are practicing in the society (Warner & Brown
2011, p.1236). Different traits are developed in both men and women according
to their environmental cultures. Men are more focused
and tried to complete their tasks efficiently, promptly. As leaders, males have
a dominant place in the workplace. They took bold decisions in the favour of the organisation
before consulting to any female while on the other hand women preferred to take
any decision of organisational affairs
after discussing to their male legal advisors of their company (Epstein &
Joshua 2008, p.12). Women lose focus or panic in a critical scenario, that’s why they are not allowed to handle
crucial projects in the workplace that leads to the foundation of gender
inequality at business organisations.


Valuation Afforded to Masculinity and Femininity in Society might interfere with
Gender Equality

The impact of gender inequality at
working organisations is enlightened in
this article. This discrimination should be minimised
by developing initiatives that provide equal rights and authorities to both of
them. The culture has its own organised
values that contribute to either inequality or equality of masculinity and
femininity. Managers of organisation can
promote the atmosphere of either equality or inequality. It depends upon their mentality how they practiced their business dealings in order to strengthen the
business relationships with his employees.

Cultural valuations that are
afforded to masculinity and femininity in society might interfere with gender
equality. Social and cultural values create a difference
in the mentality of people. Mainly, gender difference is promoted by those
cultural values that are followed and practiced
in the society. Cultures can incorporate such values that lead to the economic and social development of women at the
workplace. Women should be treated with
dignity and equity in every aspect of
life. They should be provided equal opportunities for education, training, and vocational activities that enhance
their confidence (Warner & Brown 2011, p.1240).

Culture has a very strong impact on the people ways of life.
It is the culture that can make the socially
progressive and effective and can destroy the society by his discriminant
values. If a culture promotes racial, gender, religious difference in its
society; hatred is developed among the people and the wave of harmony and peace
cannot be spread. Culture is dominating factor that captures a society in its
palm. It has such an influence on the prevailing practices of the society that
may promote gender, racial, religious equality, and
even inequality is also promoted by cultural values.

Culture valuations can legitimise subordinate status of women.
Post-soviet countries have propaganda of gender equality that women are born to
be women and are free to live their lives with all equal rights. This movement
serves to be beneficial for women in the workplace that they were recognised equally as men eradicating male
dominant and bureaucratic culture (Schalkwyk 2000, p.n.d.). Provision of equal
rights to men and women promotes peace and harmony in the society.

Culture can take initiatives such
as empowering the women skills by valuing their decisions, perspectives, ideas,
and priorities. They should be treated as
human beings. They should be dignified and morally supported by the social and
cultural values. Such reforms should be introduced by the human rights
authorities to protect their rights from marriages to inheritance, economic and
social freedom that would lead to women empowerment at workplaces (Maluke 2012, p.2). Many cultures institutionalise such reforms that have played
an important role to eradicate discrimination against women and have
strengthened women’s employment in various fields.

Women should be protected by
cultural values in order to promote gender equality of masculinity and
femininity. Cultural values which are prevailing in any society interfere in
gender equality. Thus, culture valuation afforded for males and females can
counteract the consequences of gender discrimination.


This study
concludes that companies should have to formulate their legislative to cope better results for their organisations or for society as a whole. Women
have to judge by her skills and capabilities rather than her class or gender.
Cultural valuation should indulge in the promotion
of gender equality. Equal opportunities at work should be provided to men and women. There should be no pay and status
difference among the same designation employees. By practicing culture that
promotes gender equality will maintain a peaceful environment and society will
flourish in every walk of life.