Dietary then calculated for each day. The subjects

 

Dietary and Non- Dietary Bone Fracture
Risk

Introduction

The phrase “milk builds strong bones” is
a common assumption that most American households subscribe to. While milk
contains beneficial nutrients, it does not necessarily mean that it is the
essential building block of bone health that we perceive it as. Because it is
commonly thought that calcium intake can impact bone density, I wanted to
research and see if there is a true correlation between bone health and dairy
consumption. This study, “Like Mother, Like Daughter?” was done in order to
evaluate the dietary and non-dietary risk factors for both bone fractures and
osteoporosis.

Subjects        

            The study was carried out on 712
mothers between the ages of 29-59 and daughters between the ages of 12-21. They
were interviewed about their date of birth, where they live, and their
education. Also, they were asked to rate both their economic situation and
their situation of their household from a set of provided choices. All subjects
were living in one area of Poland at the beginning of the study (Sobas, K.,
Wadolowska, L., Slowinska, M. A., Czlapka-Matyasik, M., Wuenstel, J., &
Niedzwiedzka, E., 2015).

Methods

            All
participants were tested for their bone material density (BMD) and other
osteoporosis risk factors. Their consumption of dairy was logged into a food
frequency questionnaire and the calcium intake from dairy products was then
calculated for each day. The subjects were also given a questionnaire regarding
risk factors for osteoporosis and bone fractures. The information for 21 risk
factors was gathered. All subjects were also evaluated in regards to their
physical activity by minutes per week (Sobas, K., et. al., 2015).

Results

            The
study found a correlation between calcium intake from dairy products by the
mothers and daughters as well as a high correlation between them for their
sources of dairy products consumed. A high correlation was also found between
the mothers and daughter for their risk factors for bone health. The mothers
and daughters were found to have similar bone material density with 40% of the
mother daughter pairs having the same BMD. No significant correlation was shown
between bone material density and calcium intake or physical exercise (Sobas,
K., et. al., 2015).

Discussion

The
study did find a consistency between mothers and daughters in both dietary and
non-dietary risk factors for fractures. The highest correlation of BMD came
from the mothers and daughters in who had low bone material density. The study
found three possible explanations of this, one being age. Across the study the
lowest BMD was found in women who were older and daughters who were younger.

Next is that low BMD may be inherited. Two separate studies cited in the
article showed a correlation between BMD in mothers and daughters across bother
Mexican and Japanese mother daughter pairs. The last is possible “inherited”
lifestyle factors because of the high correlation found between mothers and
daughters and their dietary and non-dietary risk factors. Since there was no
significant correlation found between dietary calcium intake or physical
activity, and it is difficult to point out one specific risk factor for low BMD
cannot be pointed out. The study found that past fractures, osteoporosis in the
family, smoking, and low physical activity were the most significant risk
factors for bone fractures (Sobas, K., et. al., 2015).

 

Implications

The main idea
to take away from this study is to understand that negative risk factors more
heavily affect the risk of low bone material density than calcium intake or
physical activity. In this case, the negative risk factors outweigh positive
measures that can be taken like a high calcium diet or physical exercise. We
should be worrying more about the negative risk factors that we engage in, over
obsessing over out consumption of calcium through dairy products. Although all
risk factors cannot be avoided like family history of osteoporosis or other
chronic diseases, we should take measures to avoid adverse habits.