theory that human and animal behavior can be explained in terms of
conditioning, without appeal to thoughts or feelings, and that psychological
disorders are best treated by altering behavior patterns.
definition, a diagram, plan, or
The difference between what a learner can do without help
and what he or she cannot do.
meaningful morphological unit of a language that cannot be further divided
smallest meaningful contrastive unit in a writing system.
Preschoolers learn to produce the
sounds of English and to manipulate language in playful ways
Children learn to combine words into
different types of sentences and to use irregular verbforms, pronouns, and
plural markers and other inflectional endings
a writing process used to teach
(usually younger) students how to write. The process involves the sharing of
a pen between the teacher and students. It can be done in a one-on-one
private lesson with a student, or with a small group of students
ability to express oneself easily and articulately.
A creative, multi-faceted process in
which children engage with and think about the text.
sheets of paper that is divided into sections for each letter of the
alphabet. Words are added
Independent reading is children’s reading of
text — such as books, magazines, and newspapers — on their own, with minimal
to no assistance from adults
one’s thoughts as soon as they occur.
Teachers listen as children
participating in story retelling activities to check that they’re
incorporation some of the vocabulary from the book in their version and using
the words appropriately
Teachers watch how children use new
words during word-study activities, minilessons, and discussions.
Teachers talk with children about
the words they’ve used in word-study activities and in their writing
a mental image of; imagine.
tool that helps teachers to identify patterns in student reading behaviors
The three broad categories of
literature are stories, informational books or nonfiction, and poetry.
Readers learn about characters by
the description of their facial features.
the fact or process of doing something,
typically to achieve an aim
Written conversations in which characters
speak to each other.
Hints about events to come later in
Descriptive words and phrases used
to create a picture in readers minds.
An excited uncertainty about the
outcome of the conflict in a story.
A person, place or thing used to
represent something else such as a lion to imply courage.
An interruption often to come later
in the story to build readers back to the beginning of the story.
Children use their knowledge of
sound-symbol correspondences and phonic rules to decode words.
Children apply skills such as
crafting topic sentences to arrange information into paragraphs.
Children apply spelling,
capitalization, and punctuation skills to make their composition more