Deanna hot asthenosphere into lithospheric mantle causing it

Deanna Datuin

December 12, 2017

Geography 110

Professor Bjerke

Final Exam

1.       Rocks

The rock cycle shows the various
geologic processes that act to transform one rock type into another. From
sedimentary rock, to metamorphic rock, to igneous rock, and back around again.
Let’s say that the rock cycle starts with sediment. The sediment is then
lithified to form sedimentary rock. From there, it can go two ways. It can be
transformed into metamorphic rock by the head and pressure when it is buried
deep within the crust or it can be weathered/transported back into its original
form. In reaching the metamorphic form, it is then melted into magma from being
deep beneath the Earth’s surface or transformed back into sediment. The magma
is then goes through crystallization to form igneous rock. And from igneous
rock, it is either transformed to metamorphic rock or broken down back into

Another name for the continental
lithosphere is the continental crust. This layer consists of the continents and
the continental shelves that are formed from igneous and sedimentary rocks.
Although the oceanic crust is considerably thicker than the continental crust,
the continental crust is less dense. Earth’s surface is covered by about 40% of
the continental crust but it makes up about 70% of the Earth’s crust. It was
derived from a differentiation of oceanic crust, a process that was a result of
volcanism and subduction. Now the difference between the continental
lithosphere and the oceanic lithosphere is that the oceanic lithosphere is
denser than the continental lithosphere and is mainly made of a mafic crust and
ultramafic mantle. As it ages and moves away from the mid-ocean ridge,
conductive cooling converts the hot asthenosphere into lithospheric mantle
causing it to thicken. When tectonic plates come together, the mature oceanic
lithosphere sinks underneath the overriding lithosphere. And while new oceanic
lithosphere is constantly being produces, it is recycled back at subduction zones,
making the oceanic lithosphere much younger than the continental lithosphere.

2.       Greenhouse Gases and Climate Change

There are three things that we, as
humans, can do to combat global warming.

For one, we can eliminate or limit
our use of fossil fuels. Like the burning of coal, oil and natural gas. Fossil
fuels are one of the biggest reasons why global warming is occurring. In
burning fossil fuels, it releases carbon dioxide into the atmosphere and
contributing to climate change. In reducing or eliminating our use of fossil
fuels we can reduce the environmental degradation. Carbon dioxide is a very
common greenhouse gas. In reducing the release of carbon dioxide into the
atmosphere, we can reduce the warming of the earth which affects the melting of
the glaciers of the world and therefore raising the sea levels which will
eventually flood the states and cities along the coasts. Another reason why we
should reduce our fossil fuel use is due to public health issues. They are not
environment friendly and cause serious health concerns. We can reduce the risk
of pollution-related diseases that kill millions of children a year, 7 million
of which are premature deaths. People that live in areas with a large amount of
traffic are at a higher risk due to the higher levels of air pollution.

Another thing we can do is to stop
cutting down trees. It is possible that the Amazon and other forests may be the
best hope for limiting climate change because they act as the lungs as the
earth. Taking in the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and releasing oxygen.
Cutting and burning down these forests contribute 1.5 billion metric tons of
carbon to the atmosphere. This is about 20% of human-made greenhouse gases that
could easily be avoided. If we could balance the amount of wood that is cut
down with the amount of new trees that are being grown, a significant chunk of emissions
can be eliminated.

And a final thing we can do is to overall
be efficient. We can make a bigger impact just by simply being efficient. By
having more energy efficient air conditioners, refrigerators and other
appliances can cut down your electricity bills. Weatherproofing windows can
also reduce the heating and cooling bills. Switching to solar power can also
help in combatting global warming. Harvesting the power of the sun is a good
way of cutting down on the use of fossil fuels that are not reusable. Even
switching to compact fluorescent lightbulbs can save many kilowatt-hours.

3.       Physical Geography Tourism Project Write Up

Since the San Andreas Fault runs
about 750 miles throughout California from North to South, San Bernardino is
actually not that far from the fault. There are different locations in which
you can visit the fault. But one of the closest places to visit the fault is
Blue Cut. From San Bernardino to Blue Cut is about 20 minutes. And the best way
to get there is to take the 215.

Here are the directions:,+California/Blue+Cut+Trail+Marker,+467-,+625+Historic+Rte+66,+San+Bernardino,+CA+92407/@34.187488,-117.5188205,11z/am=t/data=!3m1!4b1!4m14!4m13!1m5!1m1!1s0x80c3537de2fdb8f3:0x2867c6788c87c28d!2m2!1d-117.2897652!2d34.1083449!1m5!1m1!1s0x80c34683c5efae47:0xe10236a275d765f7!2m2!1d-117.4594214!2d34.2668186!3e0

Some information about the fault.

The San Andreas Fault is actually
formed from two tectonic plates. The Pacific Plate on the west and the North
American Plate on the east. It cuts through many rocks along the coastal region
of California. It runs more than 750 miles long and goes down into the earth at
least ten miles. From the fault, there are many smaller faults that branch off
of it. There are many things that reveal the presence of the fault. From the
air, one can see an arrangement of lakes, bays and valleys along a linear
trough. The features are less noticeable from the ground. If one were to drive
near San Francisco or through Cajon Pass or Tejon Pass, they wouldn’t realize
that they were in the San Andreas Fault zone. But if you looked hard enough and
inspected the landscape carefully enough, you can find evidence of the fault. One
thing that tourists should know is that this is considered to be a transform
strike-slip fault. There is some movement that has occurred along the fault.
According to an article by Sandra S. Schulz and Robert E. Wallace, “Blocks on
opposite sides of the San Andreas fault move horizontally. If a person stood on
one side of the fault and looked across it, the block on the opposite side
would appear to have moved to the right. Geologists refer to this type of fault
displacement as right-lateral strike-slip.”

4.       Local Flora and Fauna

There is one animal that I see
around where I live.


name : Western Long-tailed Brush Lizard

name : Urosaurus graciosus graciosus

Where it
is originally from? It can be found in the Mojave desert and the Sonoran
Deserts in the states of California, Arizona and Nevada. Where it originates
from is not too far from where I live. The deserts are just a couple hours’
drive, so it’s not too surprising to see these lizards.

Why did I
select this species? I decided to choose this species because it is not
often that I see a lizard. Especially moving from Northern to Southern
California. So I found it interesting to see a lizard climb up the wall in my
backyard and along the sides of my house.

Is it
beneficial or harmful to the local area? From my research, it doesn’t seem
that these lizards are beneficial or harmful to the area. They feed on smaller invertebrates
and some plant material occasionally. But in terms of defending or attacking,
it relies on its color to act as camouflage, lying still in hopes that the
predator will not see it.