CAN COMPUERS THINK AND ACT LIKE HUMAN BRAINS?
What is the difference between computer and brains? Can computer memory be compared with the human
brain? The first scientist who
experimented to answer these questions related with the differences between machinery
and humans was Alan Turing. The first
idea for measuring artificial intelligence was famously known as
the “Turing test”. In the script named, “computer machinery and intelligence” Turing propose an interesting test.
A human judge had a
small talk with players that they could
not see. Their tasks was to appreciate their responses. In order to pass the test a
computer machinery, must had the
capability to substitute one of the game competitors without
shifting results. In more easily words, a computer would be considered
intelligent if the conversation could not be easily differ from humans. Turing forecasted that by the year 2000 machines with 100 MB of
memory would have the capability to easily pass his test, but he made a jumping
on. Even though today computers have far more memory than that, he has
succeeded and those that have done well
,focused more on finding clever ways to
full judges then using impenetrable computing powers. Thought it was never vanquished to a real test, the first program that was thought to success was called
“Eliza”. With a short and easy script,
it ménage to lead astray many people,
motivating them to talk more and
mirroring their own individual questions back at them. Another paw was named “parry”.
This script took the opposite transaction
by imitating a paranoid schizophrenic who caped running the conversation back to his own
pre-programmed obsessions. Their success in manipulating people pointed out one impotence of the test.
Humans regularly predicate intelligence to all series of things that are not actually intelligent.
Nerveless, annual competition has made the test more
nominal with judges knowing that
some of their conversation’s partners are machines , but while the quality has
proved that many chatbot programmers
have used similar strategies to Eliza and Parry. 1997’s winner of competition
“Catherine”, could carry amazingly focused in an intelligence conversation, but
mostly if the judge wanted to talk about Bill Clinton and the more recent
winner Jugine Goustman was giving the persona the 13 years young old Ukrainian boy, so judges interpreted
its non isolation by using a clear grammar
as language and cultural barriers.
Meanwhile, others programs like “cleverbot” have taken an different
approach by analyzing very big data bases and real conversation to
determine the best responses. Some machinery
also stored memory of last
conversations in order to improve over time. But, while cleverbot’s individual
responses can sound like human, it is lack of consistent personality and
inability to deal with brand new topics which
have been predicting that today’s computers would be able to
discover planets and stars, perform
difficult medicine operations and
solve the most difficult math equations but, still struggle with the most basic
small talk?! Human language turns out to be an amazing complex phenomenon that
can not be captured even by the largest dictionary. Chatbots can be befoul by simple exclamatory like:”Umm..” or complex
questions with no correct answer. In a simple conversation, composite
sentences like:” I took the juice out of the fridge and gave it to them , but
forgot to check the date”, requires a wealth of underlining knowledge and
intuition. It turns out that simulating a human conversation takes more than
just an increasing memory and processes. As we get closer to Turing’s goal, we
may have to deal with all these big questions about conscience.
There has been so many opinions about the differences
between the brain of humans and computer. The truth is that some tasks can not
be done by computer and on the other side there is no alternative in
computers for doing some specific tasks. In fact computers are
made to solve problems in an algorithm way, whereas the human brain does not
work in this way. Many problems are solved according to situation that people are found, taking
into account past events etc. If we analyze on this point of view, many
problems in daily life can not be solve by making an algorithm or by googling
the problem. Humans are great at language abilities, creative thinking ,
pattern recognition. One example of pattern recognition is face recognition. We
are able to recognize faces of people that we know and also we are able to
distinguish the changes of people we know.(for example: if your best friend
cuts her hair you or when your brother
changes the manner he acts with you, you are able to discern the change)For
these kind of problems it is necessary a
human brain. On the other side human
brain is unable to solve difficult problems such as programming or making
arithmetic calculations with very big numbers. This means that the need of
using a computer is increasing day by day. We all agree that technology is
developing with big steps. Recently have been invented robots
which are in deep computers. Robots are going to replace human as individuals.
They can clean, wash the dishes, they can even talk. It is obvious that in the future human brains
will be replaced by future technology innovations.
Furthermore, there is a theory that supports that computers
work like the brain. This is called:”hierarchical temporal memory”. HMT works
by using three simple steps. Firstly, they analyze how the world works,
by sensing many things around them.
Secondly, they are able to
recognize the inputs which are part of the problem and finally they make
predictions of the events that will occur in the future. Their biggest
advantages are that they are smarter and faster than a human brain. They have
also more memory and use a process of non-stop data. Just like a human brain works.
As a conclusion I would say that computers and brains are similar and different at the same
time. By saying that I implicate that both of them have their importance.
Computers can not be used without a human and a human needs a computer in
his everyday life. Their memory, CPU,
speed, their architecture and many other functions make computers a great
invention. With the first computer invented
a revolution has became and life of humans is much easier. But, on the other
side is true that people wish to be and think like computers, but weren’t humans who first