AUTOGENIC FUEL QUALITO QUANTIFIER Y.Devi UG scholar, Department

  AUTOGENIC FUEL QUALITO QUANTIFIER

Y.Devi

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UG scholar, Department of ICE

Sri Sairam Engineering College

Chennai, Tamil Nadu,
India

S.Subashini

UG scholar, Department of ICE

Sri Sairam Engineering College

Chennai, Tamil Nadu,
India

 

 

 

 

V.Dhaarni

UG scholar, Department of ICE

Sri Sairam Engineering College

Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India

R.Ilayaraja

Assistant professor,
Department of ICE

Sri Sairam Engineering College

Chennai , Tamil
Nadu, India

 

 

 

Abstract— The main objective of
this paper is to display fuel quantity and quality using the autogenic fuel
qualito quantifier. This paper gives the idea of developing quality meter at
low cost with better accuracy. The main problem with the existing system is
that the values are displayed either empty or full and there is no existing
method for determining the fuel quality in vehicles. The problem can be
overcome by the proposed method. In this method, the values are displayed
digitally. Moreover the fuel quality is also checked with low cost components
and also the adulterant mixed with fuel can be easily found out. This method
uses Arduino platform as software for the quantity measurement and Fuzzy Logic
concept for the quality measurement. Among all the existing methods, this
method is simple, reliable and economical.

Keywords—Fuzzy systems ,Fuzzy control, Level measurement, sensors

 

                                                                                                                                                            
I.     INTRODUCTION

The vehicle models on road range from old to the
recent and their traffic is considered as a major source among others to urban air pollution.
Automobile fuel adulteration is
a clandestine and profit oriented operation. The
foreign substances are also called adulterants which when introduced alter and
degrade the quality of the base transport fuels3. Adulteration of diesel by mixing
kerosene is a common and widespread practice. These practices lead to losses in several areas, which include
damaging engines and worsening air quality6. To avoid this user should have a
technology which will detect the fuel adulteration, quantity of fuel being
refueled and emission caused by fuel5.
Developing the quality meter which displays the fuel quality is the main objective of this paper. In this, the quality of fuel is sensed  and the percentage of moisture in  the fuel is detected by means of the conductivity sensor.
At the same time, quantity of
fuel is
sensed by float sensor, while
petrol/diesel is being filled in the bunks. A fuzzy controller logic is used to process the output from
conductivity and float sensors. The fuzzy controller logic is programmed in the
arduino board. The output from this is displayed in the LCD. In this, adulteration is indicated by means
of the alarm system in vehicles and the changes produced will be indicated as values in the LCD .The alarm
system used here is buzzer .The buzzer will ON, if the certain percentage value
assigned is reduced. The Literature review made by The American Society for Testing and Materials
International (ASTM International) has developed and documented the test
methods for most of the widely used materials including petroleum products.
Many ASTM tests for the gasoline and diesel have been standardized and
documented. Some
of these tests involve the measure of suitability of fuels for use in vehicles from the point of air
pollution generated. Doping gasoline with solvents and
other chemicals can leave harmful deposits in engines1. Though no test is specifically designed to measure the adulteration of
petrol by mixing diesel or diesel by mixing kerosene, some tests namely Density
test, Evaporation test, Distillation test  may be used to determine the adulteration of
fuel also.
The following table shows the diesel and kerosene proportions with respect to
density

TABLE
1.1 Diesel and kerosene proportions with
respect to density

S.NO

DIESEL
AND KEROSENE PROPORTIONS(V/V)

DENSITY
AT 15°C (G/ML)

KINEMATIC
VISCOSITY AT 40°C (CST)

1

Pure Diesel

0.8456

2.63

2

Prescribed level

0.82-0.86

2 to 3

3

85:15

0.8400

2.33

4

75:25

0.8390

2.16

5

65:35

0.8321

1.89

6

50:50

0.8304

1.83

7

25:75

0.8234

1.5

 

The mixing of
kerosene and light diesel oil with diesel or naphtha and other solvents with
petrol which is not shown in routine tests is known as lax testing standards.
Yet, a small mix of 10-15 percent without violating the standards can help to
reap lucrative profits as much as Rs 25000 profit per day just by mixing 15
percent naphtha with petrol. Most developing country governments have not yet
established a monitoring regime and system of fines that can act as a strong
deterrent to fuel adulteration. The non-availability of mechanism and instruments
for spot checking the quality of fuels is the main cause for differential
pricing and easy availability of adulterants in market.

II. BLOCK
DIAGRAM

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fig 1.0 Overall Block Diagram

 

The block
diagram shown in fig 1.0 consists of float sensor, conductivity sensor,
arduino board, LCD and alarm module. The Float sensor measures quantity of fuel
being filled. The conductivity sensor detects the percentage of moisture in the
fuel. The fuzzy controller logic is programmed in arduino such that the logic is
used to process the output. The output from the controller is displayed in LCD.
An alarm system is used to indicate the fuel adulteration in vehicles. A 9V
battery of type 6F22 is used for the power supply. The specifications of
battery is described below

 

A. Specifications

 

Model
Number: 9V 6F 22

Battery
Type: Zinc Carbon

Size:
6F22 006P

Jacket:
Metal Single

Battery
Dimensions (mm): L- 26. 5, H – 48. 5, W – 17. 5 (Max)

Nominal
Voltage (V):9V

Discharge
Resistance (?): 620

Cut-off
Voltage (V): 5.4

Operating
Temp: -5°C to 55°C

Typical
Weight: 37 grams

Typical
Volume: 20.3 cubic centimeters

 

III. HARDWARE SPECIFICATIONS

A.   
Float sensor

 

Float sensor
used here is 100 ohm fuel sender where level of the fuel is measured by
installing it in fuel tank from above. In this float sensor the switch may be
used in an indicator, an alarm or any other devices. The value of the float
sensor increases in litres with decrease in its resistance value. The included
water proof seal will prevent the fuel leakage. The tank will read ‘Empty’ when
the float is  at full extension, 128 mm
from the top of the tank. The tank will read ‘Full’ when the float is 40 mm
from the top of the sender.

 

1)
Installation: 

 

·            
The hole for the fuel tank should be 40
mm diameter.

·            
The bolt centers are 40 mm apart.

·            
This fuel sender has a 100 ohm output
and it is compatible with all metersv
and any other fuel meter that accepts a 100 ohm input.

 

2)  Float sensor connection with
arduino and to LCD:

 

Fig 1.1 connection diagram of float sensor with arduino and LCD

 

3)  Quantity sensor reading
equivalence:

 

TABLE 1.2 Sensor reading vs. quantity in litres

 

SENSOR READING
(IN V)

QUANTITY(IN L)

0

0

.22125

1

.4425

2

.66375

3

.885

4

1.10625

5

1.3275

6

1.54875

7

1.77

8

 

B.   
Conductivity sensor

 

This sensor is used to measure the
moisture and it provides a digital output when threshold of moisture is
exceeded. The module is based on LM393 operational amplifier and is used as
comparator. It includes the electronic module and a printed circuit board that
collects the fuel. The conductivity sensor used here is moisture type sensor
that sends the signal to the LM393 op-amp and to the output devices.

 

1) LM393  Op-amp:

 

The LM393 is a dual differential
comparator; this means that it accepts 2 inputs for comparison. It compares
these voltage inputs and determines which value is larger. Electronic decisions
can be made based on which input is greater and which input is smaller. Thus, a
comparator is very useful in circuits where we measure levels and want our
circuit to act a certain way based on whether the level of an input is greater
or smaller than a certain threshold.

 

2)  Conductivity
sensor connection with arduino:

 

Fig 1.2 connection diagram of arduino
with conductivity sensor

 

C.   
 Arduino uno
microcontroller

 

Arduino is open source hardware.
Arduino/Genuino Uno is a microcontroller board based on the ATMEGA328.

It is widely used in the cases where
a lot of physical inputs are necessary.

 

1) Specifications:

 

Power: 6 V to 20 V
Memory:32KB,2KB of SRAM and 1KB of
EEPROM
I/O: 5V
Current : 20 mA
Communication: via computer or microcontroller,
via UART TTL(5 V)

 

D.   
Output
devices

 

1)  LCD:

 

Liquid Crystal Display  is a flat panel display used in digital-watches,
cameras and many portable computers. Here, the LCD is used to display the
quality and quantity of the fuel.

 

 

 

 

a) LCD connection with arduino:

 

Here 16×2 LCD is used which has 16
pins and can be operated in 4-bit mode or 8-bit mode. For 4-bit mode, the data
pins DB4 to DB7 are used whereas for 8-bit mode all the data pins have been
used.

·        
 LCD Gnd pin to Ground

·        
 LCD Vcc pin to 5V

·        
 LCD VEE pin to wiper

·        
 LCD RS pin to digital pin 12

·        
 LCD R/W pin to ground

·        
 LCD Enable pin to digital pin 11

·        
 LCD D4 pin to digital pin 5

·        
 LCD D5 pin to digital pin 4

·        
 LCD D6 pin to digital pin 3

·        
 LCD D7 pin to digital pin 2

·        
 LCD Led+ pin to 5V

·        
 LCD Led-pin to ground

 

Fig 1.3   LCD connection with arduino

2)  LED:

 

A light emitting diode (LED) is a semiconductor
device that emits  visible light when an
electric current passes through it2. Thus, the LED’s are used for indication
purpose and it glows according to the result.

 

3) 
Buzzer:

 

A buzzer or beeper is an audio
signaling device used for alarming purposes. Typical uses of buzzers and
beepers include alarm devices, timers and confirmation of user inputs. The buzzer
should be connected to arduino as I/O to any digital pin.

 

 

IV.
 SOFTWARE
DESCRIPTION

 

A.  Arduino software

 

A program for Arduino can be written
in any programming language so that the compiler produces binary machine code
for the target processor. It includes a code editor with features such as text
cutting and pasting, searching and replacing text, automatic indenting, brace
matching, and syntax highlighting, and provides simple method to compile and
upload programs to an Arduino board. Arduino refers to an open-source
electronics platform or board and the software used to program it. An Arduino
board can be purchased or pre-assembled because the hardware design is open
source are built by hand. A pre-assembled Arduino board includes a microcontroller;
this microcontroller is programmed using Arduino programming language and the
Arduino development environment. In essence, this platform provides a way to
build and program electronic components. The Arduino software supports the
languages C and C++ using special rules of code structuring. The Arduino
software contains a library for wiring projects, which provides many common
input and output procedures. User-written code only requires two basic
functions, for starting the sketch (i.e) loop and setup. The Arduino software
converts the executable code into a text file in hexadecimal encoding that is
loaded into the Arduino board by a boot loader program in the board’s firmware.

 

v.  FUZZY LOGIC CONTROLLER FOR QUALITY MEASUREMENT

 

A.  Fuzzy
set concept:

 

The difference between crisp (i.e., classical) and fuzzy
sets is established by introducing a membership function. Consider a finite set
X={x1, x2…, xn} which will be considered the universal set in what follows.
The subset A of X consisting of the single elementx1can be described by the n
dimensional membership vector Z(A) = (1,0,0,…,0), where the convention has
been adopted that a 1 at the  ith
position indicates that xi belongs to A. The set B composed of the elements x1
and xn is described by the vector Z (B) = (1, 0, 0, …. , 1).

 

B.  Different
approaches to the analysis of Fuzzy concepts

 

In mathematical logic, computer
programming, philosophy and linguistics fuzzy concepts can be analyzed and
defined more accurately or comprehensively, by describing or modeling the
concepts using the terms of fuzzy logic or other sub structural logics. More
generally, clarification techniques can be used such as:

·        
Contextualizing the concept
by defining the setting or situation in which the concept is used (context).

·        
Identifying the intention,
purpose, aim or goal associated with the concept.

·        
Comparing and contrasting
the concept with related ideas in the present or the past (comparative and
comparative research).

·        
Creating a model, likeness,
analogy, metaphor, prototype or narrative which shows what the concept is about
or how it is applied (isomorphism or simulation).

·        
Mapping or graphing the
applications of the concept using some basic parameters (visualization).

·        
Examining ”how likely” it
is that the concept applies, statistically or intuitively (probability theory).
 

·        
Engaging in a dialogue or repeated
discussion, to exchange ideas about how to get specific about what it means and
how to clear it up (scrum method).

·        
Assembling different applications of the
concept to different but related sets (Boolean logic).

 

C.  Control
with Fuzzy logic

 

A fuzzy controller is a regulating
system whose modus operand is specified with fuzzy rules. In general it uses a
small set of rules. The measurements are processed in their fuzzified form,
fuzzy inferences are computed, and the result is defuzzified, that is, it is
transformed back into a specific number.

 

D.  Rule base

 

·        
If
00

 
LOW

 
HIGH

 
LOW

 
LOW

 
VOUT2>40

 
LOW

 
LOW

 
HIGH

 
LOW

 
VOUT2>80

 
LOW

 
LOW

 
LOW

 
HIGH

 
VOUT2>100

 
LOW

 
LOW

 
LOW

 
LOW

 

 

F.  Algorithm

 

Step1: Define linguistic variables and terms. Linguistic
variables are input and output variables are in the form of simple words or
sentences.

Step 2: Construct membership functions for them.

Step 3: Construct knowledge base rules.

Step 4: Obtain fuzzy value.

Step 5: Perform defuzzification.

 

G.  Flowchart

 

Fig 1.4 Flowchart

VI PROGRAM CODE FOR DETERMINING QUALITY AND QUANTITY

 

#include
//Load Liquid Crystal Library

LiquidCrystalLCD(11,10,9,2,3,4,5);  //Create Liquid Crystal Object called LCD

constint sensor=A0;

constint sensor1=A1;// Assigning
analog pin A1 to variable ‘sensor’

floatvout;  //temporary variable to hold sensor reading

float vout1;

float vout2;

void setup()

pinMode(6, OUTPUT); 

pinMode(7, OUTPUT); 

pinMode(8, OUTPUT); 

pinMode(12, OUTPUT);

digitalWrite(6, LOW);   // turn the Buzzer off

digitalWrite(7, LOW);   // turn the Buzzer off

digitalWrite(8, HIGH);   // turn the Buzzer off

digitalWrite(12, LOW);   // turn the Buzzer off

Serial.begin(9600);

LCD.begin(16,2); //Tell Arduino to
start your 16 column 2 row LCD

LCD.setCursor(1,0);  //Set LCD cursor to upper left corner, column
0, row 0

LCD.print(“QUANTITY:”); 

LCD.setCursor(1,1);  //Set LCD cursor to upper left corner, column
0, row 048

LCD.print(“QUALITY :”);

}

void loop()

{

vout=analogRead(sensor);

vout=(vout*5)/1023;

vout=vout-0.73;

vout=vout/0.22125; // for 8 lts

if(vout0 && vout2 40 && vout2
80 && vout2

x

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