Antecedents and Consequences of Work Engagement
The antecedents of work engagement according to Kahn (1990) and Maslach et al. (2001) model includes job characteristics, perceived supervisor support, rewards, and recognition, perceived organizational support, procedural justice, and distributive justice. Psychological meaningfulness can be achieved from task characteristics that provide challenging work that allows use of different skills to make a significant contribution. High job characteristics jobs provide individuals with room to bring more of their efforts into their work (Kahn 1992). When employees have perceived organizational and supervisorial support, they get encouraged that the organization values their contribution and cares about their wellbeing (Rhoades and Eisenberger, 2002). While distributive justice pertains to one’s perception of fairness of decision outcomes, procedural justice refers to the perceived fairness of the means and process used to determine the amount and distribution of resources (Colquitt, 2001). Justice perceptions are related to an organizational outcome such as job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and performance by the individual employees.
Work engagement has positive consequences for the organization. It is therefore believed that there is a connection between employee work engagement and business results (Harter et al., 2002). Work engagement is an individual level construct, and if it does lead to business results, it must first impact individual-level outcomes. The consequences involve job satisfaction, intention to quit, organizational citizenship behavior and organizational commitment. When employees get committed to their work, the obvious result is they get satisfied with the work, and as a result, their intention to quit from work reduces. Given that antecedents predict engagement and engagement predict outcome, work engagement predicts the relationship between antecedents and the consequences.Research Design According to Mugenda & Mugenda (2003), the descriptive research design is a method that involves observing and describing the behavior of the subject scientifically without having any influence in any way.This design is important to the researcher to be able to lay down the research questions, the methodologies to apply in the research, the procedure to implement the finding and the data collection and the method to collect and analyze the data of the research project. SampleThe sample will include 100 employees working in an organization and having an average age of 30 years. They will be in their current job in the particular organization for an average of four years. This sample assumes that there is no movement of the workers from that organization to another and that the organization does not change its business over that duration. A random sample will be done on the whole population of the organization where the sample will be chosen.Validity and Reliability of the StudyAccording to Mugenda and Mugenda (2003), validity is the accuracy and meaningfulness of inference, which is based on the researcher’s results. Validity is the degree to which results obtained in the analysis of the data, actually represent the phenomenon under study. Piloting of the instruments helped to improve face validity while content validity was enhanced through expert judgment. Therefore, the researcher will seek the assistance of experts to improve on content validity. Reliability is a measure of the degree to which an instrument yields consistent results or data after repeated trials. In this study, the researcher will adopt the internal consistency technique by including several survey items dealing with a similar aspect but stated differently. Data collectionThe research will be done by issuing questionnaires to the various participants in the sample chosen. MeasuresEmployee work engagement: Two-six item scale will be designed to measure work engagement. Items will be written to assess participant’s presence in the organization and work. Participants will indicate their responses on a five-point Likert-type scale of (1) strongly disagree to (5) strongly agree.Employee performance: The consequences of employees work engagement which is directly related to employee performance will be measured using both three-item scale and six-item scale correspondingly. The participants will respond to all items for the above scales using a five-pointer Likert-type scale with anchors (1) never to (5) always.The questionnaires will be subjected to a pilot study, and some respondents will be used for the pilot test and then excluded from the study thus making the measure reliable. I will use my colleagues help to scrutinize the validity of the research instrument.Measurement The research will use multi- time measurement series. The method allows for measurement of variables over a period of time in the case of our research, it will be appropriate to use the method since establishing the performance of engaged workers requires time. The method of measurement is important as it also creates room for measurement of performance in stages. The method allows for continuous evaluation of the performance of the employees. Method of Analysis; Multi Regression ANNOVA TestI will analyze the data collected using means, standard deviation and the intercorrelations of the study variables to show that there is a significant correlation between employee work engagement and employee performance. A multiple regression analysis will be conducted to test the study hypothesis where each of the items in the scales will be regressed on the dependent and independent variables to test the influence of the independent variable on the dependent variable. An analysis of variance test will, therefore, be conducted. The ANOVA test will reflect the various variables in the regression model with the assumption that data will be collected from a normally distributed population. The result of the test will be interpreted as follows: if the significance value of the F-statistic is smaller than 0.05, then the independent variable explains the variation in the dependent variable. If the significance value of F is larger than 0.05, then the independent variable does not explain the variation in the dependent variable as according to Cooper and Schindler (2003)Limitations of the studyProblems will be encountered while designing the questionnaires which will play an important role in serving as the main research instrument. The development of the questions will be a challenge as they must not restrict respondent’s ability to give full feedback that will be useful in the research. There might be difficulty in finding journals and articles to support the study as literature review as there might be insufficient materials that have covered the particular area and are available.