ABSTRACT the required efficiency in this development process.

ABSTRACT

The challenge imposed on
business organizations today depends not only on the provision of information,
but on the speed of access to it, how to deal with it, its structure and its
enrichment to make the best decision in a timely and appropriate manner. This
is why organizations today are developing their information systems and
achieving the required efficiency in this development process. It is imperative
for these organizations to use the strategic planning of information systems to
chart the correct future vision for the development requirements.

 

 Keywords: IT Strategies, Business
Objectives, business processes and management, effectiveness .

 

Introduction

 

Today, in any organization of
various sectors, the government industry and commerce rely mainly on their own
information systems. In the words of Rockerart1 ? IT has become inextricably
intertwined with the business ?. The judgment of organizational excellence
on the effectiveness and the ability of organizations to feed at all levels
with the necessary information and ability to produce strategic information
with the accuracy and timeliness required supporting decision-makers in making
the right decisions .On the other hand, technological progress has forced
organizations to develop Information systems, especially in response to rapid
changes in all areas of life .This research comes to address the problem of
some sectors, which is not use of technology Information to achieve outstanding
performance, and the objectives of research are reflected through knowledge of
the role played by information systems Strategy as an independent variable in
performance excellence.

In light of the escalating
currents of competition in the knowledge economy, organizations are looking for
the tools and means to survive in this competition. The strategic information
systems represent one of these vital tools and tools that are seen as an
imposed choice and not an option for the organization to be adopted or not; the
general problem is that “strategic information systems have a role in
achieving outstanding performance in sectors such as electricity and water. The
importance of research in trying to raise the interest of senior and middle management
in different sectors highlights the importance of the role of the information
systems strategy in terms of its dimensions, which include (individuals,
information, information technology) as one of the main success factors in
achieving outstanding performance. Also will highlight the appropriate
solutions to the problems that organizations may face in order to overcome the
challenges that hamper their work, which may make many of these organizations
outside the field of competition.      

State of Art

The concept of strategic information systems:

In the literature of
contemporary administrative thought, a common concept of strategic information
systems has been defined by the conceptual overlap of evidence with other types
of systems. (Ward & Peppard, 2002: 23) noted that contemporary applications
enable organizations to change the nature of their work to keep pace with
contemporary changes. Others also interpret it as an interaction between human
and technological resources that work manually or automatically to equip
managers with the necessary information. Also, It defined that is one of the
types of advanced systems that provide strategic information to the Department
to support the long-term planning process. Some studies confirmed that it is an
advanced system that supports administrative levels in achieving competitive
advantages. (Yang et al., 2011:2) noted that strategic information systems are
modern systems capable of analyzing the internal and external environment variables. The researchers believe that the strategic
information systems refer to a type of advanced applications based on
technology in providing the necessary information to the beneficiary.

Here I mention some previous studies support the use
of information systems strategy to increase work efficiency:

a
researcher studied a range of techniques to improve the decision-support system
for the strategic planning process in the industry through a case study of
Indian pharmaceutical manufacturers who added and developed techniques to
improve the decision support system through four key elements, Stimuli, storage
areas, duration
In order to use this system effectively, the user must know the techniques that
have been improved study by Dutta, et al (2007). The results of
this study indicate that through the data collected, the techniques used to
improve decision support system for the planning process Strategy has led to
improved returns and profits.

Study by (Angelidis, Tomic and Parsa, 2013) the researcher studied the relationship
between the strategic planning and the growth in the small industrial companies
using the analytical descriptive method and the field study. The researcher
prepared a questionnaire to collect the data. They designed small industrial
companies in small manufacture firms. There is a positive correlation between
strategic planning and four dimensions of growth related to the competition:
sales / revenues, expansion of market share, opening of new positions of the
company and increase in the number of employees.

“The Role of Information
Systems in Achieving Competitive Advantage” study by (Palanisamy, 2003)
in the Industrial Sector. This course aims at identifying the role that
information systems play as a strategic tool to achieve competitive advantage.
The most important findings of this study are: A positive relationship between
the technological requirements of the information systems and the competitive
advantage of the industrial establishments. There is a correlation between the
readiness of information technology and the market share, which is one of the
indicators of competitive advantage. The most important recommendations of this
study: the need to deal with information as a major resource and important
among the various resources in the institutions, emphasis on the attention of
qualified manpower and the use of information systems and technology within
different sections of institutions.

Study entitled “The role of
strategic information systems in supporting and achieving the competitive
advantage of insurance companies” by (Madadipouya, 2015). The aim of this study is to assess the
effectiveness of the information systems used in the insurance sector, to
present the problems faced by insurance companies in the use and application of
information technology, to determine the role of the strategic information
system in influencing the competitive strategies of insurance companies. The
study reached many results, including: The strategic information system
provides strategic information that is comprehensive, integrated, continuity
and clarity, which indicates that it affects the support and achievement of
competitive advantages , The existence of a positive relationship between the
variables of elements of the strategic information system (requirements,
processes, characteristics of outputs) and variables supporting and achieving
competitive advantages (excellence, cost leadership, creativity, growth,
alliances) in the insurance companies. The most important recommendations of
the study: the need for insurance companies to increase their capabilities and
provide the capital needed to invest in information technology and support the
functions of management R & D and management of information systems in the
company, the need to pay attention to the provision of trained manpower
qualified to use the methods of information technology within the various
departments in the company.

The importance of strategic
information systems

The strategic information
systems acquire their importance through providing strategic information that
helps managers of organizations analyze previous situations, plan and predict
future events, and have substantial competitive advantages such as
attractiveness, uniqueness and future vision .As a key factor in the success of
the pilot organizations that use them to support their various activities
through the adoption of information technology that supports the direct work of
the direct user . Also their application in the organizations involves
significant changes in objectives, processes and production that enable the
organization to obtain a new position among competitive organizations by
offering its products at a lower cost than competitors and their ability to
analyze customer attitudes, tastes and preferences .The importance of strategic
information systems comes from the importance of strategic decisions that have
a future impact on the operations of the Organization as a whole, which makes
managers urgently need strategic information to support the decision-making
stage, leading to fewer errors in management processes in the Organization.

PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS

Organizations strive to achieve
outstanding performance by following a set of criteria that share a conducive
climate
working to achieve the best results to reach high levels of performance and
these standards (De Waal, 2001: 202 🙂
· The organization has a clear strategic vision.
· Adoption of the principle of participation in     work.
· Reliance on technology and talented human resources

· Develop rules for motivation, promotion
and accountability.

Several requirements for organizations
seeking excellence (Nicole, 2005:2) identified:

· Establish and adhere to high
standards of performance.
· A clear and understandable
strategic vision by all.
· Rapid response to environmental
variables.
· Continuing education culture.
· Effective information systems

The requirements of outstanding
performance (Daft, 2007: 40) pointed, which can be summarized as follows:
· Ability to diagnose organizational problems.
· Continuous assessment.
· Restructuring the Organization.
· Shared culture and support for innovation processes.
· Flexibility in dealing with environmental variables

PERFORMANCE INDICATORS

The following are the most
important performance indicators:

Strategy

The strategy is the starting
point for the process of environmental analysis and assessment. It refers to
the organization’s definition of its long-term goals and objectives and the
allocation of the resources necessary to achieve these goals and objectives set
by the senior management, it is also the way the organization chooses to manage its
various product lines and manage its business units with a drive to maximize
value. Therefore, the organization’s strategy contributes mainly to determining
the type of business that the organization wishes to practice and thus how
resources are allocated to accomplish these tasks. (Hull & Jones 65: 2008),
that the strategy represents the message to management to recognize emergency
operations and then intervene in a timely manner and eliminate and reinforce
the poor emergency strategies and adopt them as a result of their impact on the
organizational structure. Some studies explained the strategy as one of the windows
that reflect the prospects of the organization’s work to be achievable and
measured in the light of environmental variables and based on the scenario
system that is directly related to analyzing the business environment and
building the competitive position.

Leadership

Leadership refers to capacity
and seeks to translate the strategic vision into a viable reality to reflect
the aspirations of strategic leaders that have a direct impact on the workings
of the Organization. Organizations lacking active leadership cannot continue
their work (Weiskittel, 2006: 1) and to influence individuals, but to deal with
the human element and elevate their vision to higher levels and raise their
performance to higher standards and build their personality beyond their normal
limits.

In another interpretation it is
the process of influencing others to reach a common understanding and agreement
about the work to be performed and how to achieve it effectively. It
facilitates individual and collective efforts to achieve common goals that
contribute to the effectiveness and success of the Organization. The efficient
leadership of the Organization is one of the most important elements of
success. And the basis of its work and practice within a clear and objective work
strategy (Robbins & Judge, 2009: 302).

Culture

Organizational culture is one of
the determining factors in determining the degree of harmony between an
organization and its employees by focusing on a set of values and trends that
reflect the way things are accomplished and the nature of the relationship
between the organization and its environment (Berry, 2004: 2) Which affect the
nature of the work of individuals within the organization (Kranakis, 2004: 493) ,these beliefs are of great
value and must be instilled in the minds of the Organization’s members as
fundamental principles governing the behavior of individuals working within the
organization (Tsui et al., 2006: 350). It contributes to the formulation and
composition of personality patterns through the dissemination of knowledge and
concepts leading to recognition with environmental data and interaction with
them on the other hand and the importance of organizational culture in
organizations in the following aspects (Jubouri, 2008: 9):

Organizational culture is a guide for
management and staff to be followed and guided.
B. An intellectual framework that guides members of one organization and
organizes their work and relations.
C. Is a special feature of the organization from other organizations, and it is
a source of pride and pride for its employees, especially if they emphasize
certain values such as innovation, excellence, leadership and overcoming
competitors
D. Strong culture facilitates the task of management and employees, so they do
not need formal procedures to confirm the desired behavior. 

Market

In
line with the phenomenal technological developments in the world of
communications and information and the multiplicity of transactions, the
influence of the markets has expanded in the business economy, making the
financial markets occupy a large place in economic activity. The market is
generally seen as the mechanism of convergence of supply forces to provide cash
to customers either in cash or in form or securities on the one hand and to
exchange certain benefits in a timely fashion. Markets represent an integrated
framework that brings together the dealers in the securities (sellers and
buyers) for the purpose of completing transactions in regular terms. There is
no specific place for this market to complete transactions, The markets are the
main building blocks of any financial system in the country because it is the
mechanism of mediating between the investment and savings sectors that are
working to re-inject investments in the financing structure of the projects to
provide the necessary funds to re-expand production and to renew its movement
in line with the development To a level in the economy.

Analysis of the importance of strategic planning

Here
an important question arises who needs a strategic plan for information
systems?

As
shown in the figure , all the administrative levels in the organization need IS
strategic plan, for the following reasons:

Top management ensures that the core
capabilities and strategic direction supported by the information systems are
provided.Middle and operational management are keen
to provide technological tools and information that help in decision-makingCustomer relationship management is able to
achieve sales support and follow-up and achieve customer satisfaction.Management of information systems is able
to meet the expectations of managers of information technologies and systems in
support of decisions at different levels in the organization.The company’s internal information systems
department works better through:

Identify the strategic
information the company needs.Define the scope of work and
expectations of information systems projects.Building collective consensus
supporting information system priorities.Better use of e-commerce
technology.Reduce the efforts and
expenditures of inefficient information systems.

Figure (1) Developing the strategic plan for information systems and their
relation to the general strategic plan for the development of work and
performance

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

What
are the disadvantages of organizations not using the information systems
strategy?

The answer are:

Systems investments do not support the
organization’s objectives.Loss of control over IT / IS, often leading
individuals to achieve conflicting goals through IT / IS.Systems are not integrated and this can
also lead to duplication of effort, resulting in inaccurate data and
non-interconnected sources of information.Lack of a means to prioritize projects /
resources information systems and change plans continuously resulting in
reduced productivity, etc.There are no mechanisms to determine
optimum levels of resources or the best way to supply systems.Poor information management is either
unavailable as inconsistent, inaccurate or too slow.Misunderstanding between users and IT
professionals leading to yelling and dissatisfaction.Technology strategy is interrelated and
restricts options.Infrastructure investments are insufficientAll projects are evaluated on a financial
basis onlyProblems arising from IS / IT investments
can become a source of conflict between parts of the organization.Concentration of justification for
investments can result in benefits which are in fact negative effects in the
macro environment of the business.

CONCLUSIONS

IT is a key
tool in strengthening the organizational structure when integrated into a clear
strategy, facilitating and stimulating the implementation of the Organization’s
activities in a better manner, and its role is important in reducing
uncertainty as a result of the method and procedures used and enhanced by
technical applications

In this paper,
a number of important and relevant elements were discussed in the success of IT
integration across all FAO activities, including: the relationship between the
organization’s strategy and the IT strategy, the key elements of IT success,
the key elements of its failure, the factors to be successfully integrated into the activities of the Organization.

From analysis
and studies, we conclude the following:

Administrations in all organizations must
realize the importance of strategic information systems for their significant
role in achieving outstanding performance. Departments are keen to develop their
performance to achieve outstanding results that make them within a sustainable
competitive path through the provision of effective strategic information
systems.The strategic information provided by the
strategic information systems has a significant impact on the success of the
decisions necessary to perform outstanding work.The statistical results showed that there
is a significant effect on the dimensions of the strategic information systems
in the outstanding performance, which indicates that the strategic information
systems have a significant impact on the outstanding performance.

RECOMMENDATIONS

Intensifying the cognitive effort with
contemporary cognitive and conceptual developments such as the topics of the
strategic information systems Factors that influence operations and are the
primary source of sustainable competitive advantage.In order to achieve the goal of excellence,
the information systems development departments should keep abreast of
technological developments as well as their great role in achieving full
coordination between different administrative levels. The
need for administrations to recognize the importance of outstanding performance
to ensure the promotion of opportunities for competitive progress and to
improve their role in achieving sustainable development and ensuring the
well-being of society. To
increase adequate allocations for research efforts, to develop and design new
processes to reduce costs and effort, and to use advanced training programs for
human resources in order to achieve differentiation by linking operating
systems on the one hand with human resource systems and strategic information
systems on the other.The importance of simplifying the work
procedures of any organization and the need for further studies to cover the
aspects that were not covered by the study as a detailed study of the decision
support systems in the company and studies related to the supply chain and the
management of customer relations or what serves the work of the organization.Using other independent variables and
measuring their impact on the outstanding performance of the other service
sectors in Oman

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