Abstract-The provide useful information to external users and

 

Abstract-The new emerging technologies in
IoT makes easy for user to find location as well as to get information about
the location. In this paper, briefly explain about indoor location aware system
and their different methods. There are different methods and techniques are
used  for indoor location with mainly
respect to IoT .One of the method is by using wearable devices and these
devices are able to combine with image recognition for capturing images as
wells as localization capabilities for getting location information. Thus these
can provide identification of user as well as other objects that come across
the user. This can be highly used in museum for enhancing the user experience.
By using Bluetooth low energy (BTLE) infrastructure the consumption energy can
be reduced .It also provide useful information to external users and share
experience through social networks with cloud storage .It also interact with
heterogeneous technologies that control the status of the environment.
technologies. It also allows to easy extending to new technologies which also
improve flexibility and scalability. Another method used for indoor location is
by using vibration sensor. Vibration Sensor fixed in building’s different
position help to locate pedestrian or user’s movement. Another method is
consider as high accurate for indoor location .This will provide high precise
in user location which uses surveillance camera which also help to provide
centimetre grade accuracy.

 

Keywords:
Internet of Things (IoT), Bluetooth low energy (BTLE), Image recognition,
Centimeter -Grade Localization, Middleware.

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Internet of
Things (IoT) is the connection of things to internet as Figure 1. The IoT
allows objects to be sensed or controlled remotely across existing network
infrastructure, creating opportunities for more direct integration of the
physical world into computer-based systems, and resulting in improving the
efficiency, accuracy and economic benefit in addition to reduced human
intervention. Location-awareness is highly remarkable subject in IoT fields, as
many applications exploit location information to provide services such as
guidance and use it to control lighting or temperature in the environment.
Smart connected locations to express our idea on location based data become
really valuable in day to day life of people in this time. Indoor is where the
money spends, meet friends, and where business happens. Thus indoor location or
position is very important. Navigation inside the large malls, museums
airports, which make easier as well as save time 4.

Thus Indoor Location provides the position inside
buildings. Thus positioning can be done in different ways and by accompanying
other technologies like image processing increases the accuracy of systems. In
this paper various method indoor localization with different technologies are
incorporated. And these method’s features are briefly compared.

                                                                                                                                                              

There are different
methodologies arisesing in the field of Indoor Location aware or
positioning.Many other fields like image processing ,artifical intelligence etc
are accompained with IoT which increase the usability as well as the
accuracy.Some of the methods are:

One of the method is
used in Muesuem for indoor location aware system1.In this method mainly
location service ,artwork recognition are key notes.Here the location service
or location information is given by the devives which is installed in different
areas of muesuem which is termed as landmarks.These devices are embedded with
bluetooth low energy interface due to low energy consumption.Mainly location
services is distributed with wearable device and processing center.Wearable
device has image recogintion service to dectect artwork.RANSAC algorithm is
mainly used for image recognition service 6.Processing center proccess these
information and it can send information to user as well as extrenal agents.It
can access the cloud ,so this  will
increase thebusinness value.This can also provide the audio information of
artwork to user.The advantages of this method is large as user’s position along
with object can be identifed.Using of wearable device the potential negative
impact of mobile phone can reduce.The main advantage of this is because of
using middleware in processing center.Due to this the whole system can interact
or accompained with other technologies such as KNX9,Constrained Application
Protocol(CoAP) 4.In this method the user’sposition and object can be
identified with accurate. By using middleware the scalability and flexibility
increases. BTLE reduces energy consumption in front of a communication range comparable
with that of the traditional Bluetooth. The overall structure is shown in
Figure 2.

Another method
is used for indoor location is by using vibration sensor. Vibration Sensor
fixed in building’s different position help to locate pedestrian or user’s
movement. Here the vibration propagation is sensed by vibration sensors which
are fixed in buildings. The solid wave propagation and radio wave propagation
have differences which can be evident by different algorithms or techniques.
Distance based measurement such as time-of-arrival (TOA), time
difference-of-arrival (TDOA), received signal strength (RSS)) or angle-based
measurements such as angle-of-arrival (AOA) are mainly applicable for the solid
wave propagation which priory used. In current trend the source vibration can
be detected and located from footstep magnitude force of pedestrian. Mainly two
processing stages: (1) Attempts to detect each footstep and (2) localizing
detected footsteps when possible. In the first stage, the data was processed by
examining half-second windows (which is less than the time between footsteps)
and detecting footsteps (peaks in the vibration signal that exceed a given
threshold) at multiple sensors. In the second stage, when at least four sensors
detect a footstep within a given interval, localization is performed using
TDOA.

Another method
is video based indoor positioning system (VIPS) which provide centimetre grade
localization for IoT. In this method highly accurate positioning information is
achieved by integrating the installed surveillance camera in building with IoT
5. This enables micro location aware IoT services as well as applications in
smart environment. This can be used to estimate the precise position of
individual as well as this can be detects the facing direction of each
individual. Indoor positioning units are installed at different areas of
building for capture, detect and broadcast the location information of
individuals which uses wireless network interface (Wi-Fi/4G) for
environment-to-individual (E2I) communications, surveillance cameras for image
capturing, database for mapping pixels to locations, and a microprocessor for
face recognition and pixel mapping 8. Mobile handheld unit (MHU) is used for
receiving position information for user from IPU which consists of a wireless
network interface for E2I communications and a microprocessor for identifier
matching 7. By installing multiple surveillance cameras at different places
to monitor the same area, the facing direction of the individual can be
detected. Firstly the IPU check whether any individuals are there in the area.
If individuals are there, their image is captured by surveillance cameras. Then
the faces of all individuals in the captured image are detected. Then the
detected face and associated identifier (e.g., user account) of each individual
are recognized. Then the centre pixel of each face on the camera image is
mapped to the location in the area for providing centimeter-grade accuracy.
Finally, the IPU broadcasts the positioning message containing the identifiers,
positions, and directions of all individuals on the camera to MHUs. When a MHU
receives a positioning message, it compares its individual identifier with the
ones in the positioning message. If the same identifier is found in the
positioning message, the MHU can obtain the current position and facing
direction of the individual. The overall system architecture is shown in Figure
2.2.Position location of a user or a device in a given space is
one of the most important elements of contextual information. Location detection has been very
successfully implemented at outdoor environments using GPS technology in indoor environments, the usability
of the GPS or equivalent satellite-based location systems is limited, due to
the lack of line of sight and attenuation of GPS signals as they cross through
walls. Indeed, precision of some 50 meters inside a commercial setting is useless
with respect to a task such as locating specific merchandise on a shelf. Thus,
the need for specialized methods and technologies for indoor location systems
are increasing. Indoor localization
provide intelligent smart building environments which provide facilitate in
hospital, industries etc. Thus the first method used in museum which enhance
user experience as well as in other areas. This method provides user’s position
as well as the object identification i.e. in museum the artwork. It can lead the
access to cloud storage median the information and user’s experience can pass
as multimedia content to outside also. It is also capable for integrating with
the other technology. Thus these are the advantages where some limitations are
additional devices such as wearable devices are required and damages to device
affect whole process. Similarly method based vibration are needed more sensor
which in building as wells as it can only predict location and extensibility is
limited. VIPS method provide high accuracy of indoor position i.e. centimeter
grade accuracy which great advantage as compared to other method along with the
image recognition with already installed surveillance cameras in building
reduce the cost. 

 

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