Abstract product and that are where brand loyalty



In the vast
changing world where competition is at its peak, it is important for a brand to
create its brand loyalty in such a way that a consumer remains faithful to that
particular brand irrespective to the competitors’ pressures and purchases that
particular brand’s product only. In respect to this a brand must provide
positive feelings to its consumers which will create a response of repurchasing
of the same product and that are where brand loyalty lies. This section
contains the exhausted literature reviews and some previous studies which were
conducted on 5 variables: brand identification, brand affect, symbolic need,
brand loyalty and self-congruency. The basic purpose of these studies was to
determine the impact of brand identification, brand affect, symbolic need and
self-congruency on brand loyalty. Moreover, these studies serve to provide
knowledge about the importance of these variables in creating brand loyalty in
the Hotel Industry.

Key words: Brand identification, Brand
affects, Symbolic need, Brand loyalty and Self-congruency, Hotel Industry.






This study is about how brand loyalty is affected by brand
identification, brand affect, and symbolic need. The purpose of this study is
to prove the positive and negative impact of these variables. This study
further elaborates how hotel industry provides symbolic needs (status, benefits
and food quality) with which customers identify themselves because people use
the brands which represent their social status and their self-image is also
very important when they choose restaurants and everyone wants good quality
food, healthy food as well. Hotels are not only the place of dinning but people
visit hotels for meetings, social gathering which are most important aspect.

Identification plays an essential role in
promoting a sense of belonging to a specific group along with creating a strong
emotional attachment to a brand (Stephenson & Yerger,

2014). Through identification, a very significant bond or
connection is produced between the individuals and the brand to which
individuals feel connected (Rubio, Villasenor & Oubina,

2014). In order to construct one’s
identity of a particular brand, an increase in the purchase and consumption of
the brand takes place (Becerra & Badrinarayanan, 2013). 

The theory on which brand
identification is based is social identity theory (Kuenzel & Halliday,
2010). As Taifel and Turner (1985) further suggested that if different
individuals want to express themselves as participants of a special social
group, they behave like this for their selfesteem or pride (as cited in Kuenzel
& Halliday, 2010). Whereas, in the context of understanding consumer
behavior; social identity theory comes really handy because not every consumer
need is as same as the other consumers but still they portray themselves as
part of a group (Kuenzel & Halliday, 2010). According to Kuenzel and
Halliday (2008), satisfaction is the main component that confirms the social
identity and inspires a supportive behavior. Because individuals only feels a
sense of fulfilment with an organization when they’re expectations are met.
Belk (1988) and Schau and Gilly (2003) also elaborated how symbolic resources
of brands are used by consumers in order to create a sense of self and build their
identities (as cited in Lam, Ahearne, Mullins, Hayati & Schillewaert,
2013).It is known that brands which makes people happy and gives them good
feelings, as a result people intend to be loyal towards those particular brands
which leads to brand effect (Mazler, Bidmon, & Grabner-Krauter, 2008) We
investigated two aspects in brand affect in personality traits Hedonic values
and personality traits. Lewis (1981) agrees to the fact that consumers choose
hotel that fulfils symbolic need which caters five factors: price; food
quality; menu variety; atmosphere; and convenience factors.

If a hotel has a positive
reputation among its customers due to its superior quality, customers will put
more of their trust into the restaurant’s product/service offerings (Chang,
2013). While establishing and structuring the framework of superior brand
relationship, brand affect plays the role as a forerunner of brand loyalty
(Kuenzel & Halliday, 2008). From a hotels’s perspective, customers who
often visit specific hotels actually communicate their social identity to
social groups by identifying themselves with the hotels brand (Han, Nguyen
& Simki, 2016). Interestingly, symbolic and functional benefits like status
and food quality are now provided by different restaurants to its consumers
(Han et al., 2016). For a consumer to express his symbolic needs, the
consumption of products/services increases accordingly. As a result, brand
loyalty mediated by customer involvement (Goode, 2001). Therefore, hotels persistently
strive to make customers loyal to their brand because it serves as a
competitive edge to them by creating a unique brand identity.


2. Literature Review


Previous Studies:


 Kuenzel & Halliday’s, (2010) study
on brand identification:


This literature
review explains that brand identification is basically a company’s identity
through this a company can maximize its profit. It’s an element which
differentiates any brand within the minds of the consumers. This previous study
shows that how brand identification is important to promote brand. Consumers
who knows a brand and identifies the firm, purchases more products of that
brand and suggests those brands to others. They also create positive
wordof-mouth because consumers are the ones who promotes the brand and shows
how loyal they are with that particular brand. According to the aforesaid
discussion when a consumer fully identifies a particular brand and creates a
sense of belongingness because of the brand within a particular society, he/she
becomes loyal to that particular brand (Kuenzel & Halliday, 2010).


Nguyen & Simkin’s, (2016) study on brand affect:


This study shows
that brand affect is an important factor of creating brand loyalty. If
customers are happy and they have positive feelings about the brand, then they
will also recommend that particular brand to their families and friends. It
means they are loyal to the brand. According to some scholars, they have
suggested that consumers’ emotions are very important as it has an effect on
consumers’ behavioral intensions (Sung, Nguyen & Simkin, 2016).


& Siahtiri’s, (2014) study on symbolic need:


This literature
review sheds light on symbolic consumption which depends on consumer’s desire,
lifestyle and personality. Through symbolic consumption a consumer fulfils
his/her symbolic needs. The previous study shows that symbolic need is an
important part of consumer while choosing various products or services. It
suggests that most consumers have a strong bond with those products that caters
their social status, class and emotional attachments. Thus it has a direct
effect on brand loyalty when a consumer choose a certain product and remains
faithful to it. This creates a positive and repetitive behavior of consumer for
the brand. According to the abovementioned discussion it could be further
concluded that in order to fulfil certain symbolic needs, consumption takes
place which is known to be symbolic consumption and when a consumer starts
consuming a brand repeatedly, he/she becomes loyal towards the brand (O’Cass
& Siahtiri, 2014).

2.1. Independent variable 1 (I.V) relation
with dependent variable:

   Brand Identity is positively proportional
to the Brand loyalty.

2.2. Independent variable 2 (I.V) relations
with dependent variable:

Affect is positively proportional to the Brand loyalty.

2.3. Independent variable 3 (I.V) relations
with dependent variable:

Symbolic Need is positively proportional to the Brand loyalty.








3. Methodology:

3.1. Research design:


 Statement of the Problem:

One of the most crucial
questions posed in marketing is how to create a company’s brand loyalty to
increase any business performance. According to the previous researchers, a
hotel’s brand reputation places a significant effect on consumer’s satisfaction
which thereby leads to brand loyalty.



Research Model:



                                           H3 (+ve)


H2 (+ve)









3.2. Population:

selected population for this study was Hotel Industry of the Pakistan providing
services in country.  


3.3. Sample (Target sector):

this research, we chose on simple random sampling technique, because the
respondents who were to participate were selected on the basis of a general
above mentioned criteria that the respondents must be Hotel employees and
customer. 80 Questionnaires were distributed to employees and 50 to customers.
The duly completed response was received from employees were 50 and from
customers were 20. In order
to get accurate information from the respondents, the questionnaires were kept