2. paper has carried out recently by a

2.
Discussion of finding

2.1.
Background information about music and emotion

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To date, there has been no concrete of music, but as
defined by Adam Crouse (2015) in the article “How does music affect our lives” (n.d.), it is
difficult to define the meaning of music which messes with our heads and makes
us have different feelings. These feelings may appear in a form of either simple
emotion like sad, happy, angry, worry, fearful or complex ones like
disappointment, hopeless, bored and so on.

A
survey was conducted in Basehor Linwood High School illustrated surprised
statistic about how regular music is. According to Adam Crouse (2015), reporter
of this survey, around 22.2 percent of participants said that they spend between
one to two hours on listening to music a day, when another 22.2 percent was
reported for those who listen at least five hours each day. The group of people
in the school who listen to music between two to three hours each day accounted
for almost 18.4 percent, and from three to four hours made up 16.5 percent. Meanwhile
over one-tenth (11%) of all people listen not over an hour to music every day,
and less listen to between four to five hours per day; about 9.5 percent.

Nevertheless,
the definition of emotion is still ambiguities and hazy. “Emotion is one of the
most complicated things that the brain has to carry out” identified by Subhadeep
Dutta Gupta (2016). Agreed with this statement, M.P. González, E. Barrull, C.
Pons and P. Marteles (1998) added that because of this complexity in the way we
express our moods that almost people think emotion is a multidimensional
process; however, this complexity is the foundation of all moods.

Based
on the case emotion is evoked that we choose words to
express such as ‘love’, ‘fear’, ‘uncertainty’, ‘respect’, etc., at that time,
the signals of mood are shown no matter it is positive or negative (M.P.
González, E. Barrull, C. Pons and P. Marteles, 1998)

2.2.
The way music affect moods

“Before our understanding of the mechanisms of
emotion induction by music can be successfully advanced, it might be helpful to
know something about the nature of music-induced emotion” said Marcel Sentner
(2008, p. 494-495). The way music affects our emotion in recent years has
attracted the attention of many scientists that they has collected data, analyzed
them and concluded about it.

A research paper has carried out recently by a team
in Montreal, Canada in Neuroscience including fancy technology, functional
magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), position emission tomography (PET) scanning
with the mission of experiencing 217 people. The participants will take favorite
music playlist with them while be scanned. The first result of this research was
that music has impact on the production of dopamine which plays an important
role in creating human emotion. As definition by Sonya McGilchrist Health
Reporter of BBC News (2011): “Dopamine is a common neurotransmitter in the
brain”. He added that dopamine, which is connected with reinforcement and
motivation, has responsibility for rewarding human activity.

Also research in this field, a famous study carried
out by a group of researchers at the University of Groningen which taken part
in by people who expected to find out either their facial emotion was “happy”
or “sad” while listening to music. Answered by Jacob Jolij and Maaike, denpend
on what types of music was playing that participants chose “happy” or “sad”.

2.3.
The influences of music on human moods

“One reason for the universal appeal of music lies
in the emotional rewards that music offers to its listeners” (Marcel Zentner,
2008, P. 494). In fact, music has been demonstrated that has both positive and
negative effects on human moods.

First of all, music plays an extremely important
role in bringing advantage for human mental. Marcel Zentner (2008, p. 494)
asserted: “Music is the present in every culture, and it plays a prominent role
in people’s everyday lives”. In the past, when many places over the world lived
in spiritual lives, it seemed that worship songs and music used in prayer or
sacrifice ceremony have bring the power to uplift the spirit and believes in
minds. In the complement of Kathi J. Kemper (2015), he mentioned about the way
people used music to encourage and build confident for military that can be
seen in any war, and to rouse enthusiasm in sporting event.

On the other hand, despite the unexpected benefits
of music on human moods, sometime music still causes disadvantage effects. To
prove it, a study was conducted with 144 participants including teenager and
adult listening to 4 difference types of music, and this study pointed out
interesting result. According to this study, grunge music increases the levels
of sadness, hostility, fatigue, and tension in almost participants. For
instance, a few year ago, a music named “Gloomy Sunday” was published and led
to negative phenomena when people mass suicide. Meanwhile another study showed
the opposite result with others kinds of music such as rock, pop, oldies, and
classical music which make people happier and more optimistic, relaxed and
calm. Therefore, no one can deny that music brings many benefits to mental
health; however, there are certain types of music makes our emotion worse.

In recent years, a long with the development of
technology like radio or recording, music becomes on of the most important
factors to human lives. Some survey showed that more and more people spend a
large amount of time listening to music whatever the types of music they join.

2.4.
Music as a psychological treatment

The beneficial impacts of music on human mental
health thanks to the influences of music on mood states, music is becoming a
research subject of many scientists and being analyzed to use in medicine as a
treatment for psychological diseases, especially the three most common diseases
such as anxiety, stress and depression.

Anxiety is common symptom of people appearing when
they have to face with important things or what they afraid. In New York Times
last year, Jen Doll quoted the definition of anxiety of Naomi Simon: “Anxiety
disorders are the most common condition in psychiatry” (4). To cope
with this problem, many scientist, especially psychologists have tried to find
out effective solutions to decrease the rate of worry, and music was found as a
positive one: “music helps decrease anxiety in the elderly, new mother, and
children too,” said Kathi J. Kemper.

As reported by Mental Health, Naturally in the
article “The family guide to holistic care for a healthy mind and body”, Kathi
J. Kemper provided evidences to demonstrate that music can decrease the levels
of stress. First of all, long time ago, the praises under the form of lyrics in
songs was sung by philosophers in some cities such as Plato or Confucius, and
the kings of Israel because they believed that using music to lower stress.
Later, Kathi J. Kemper performed his opinion that music with calming background
and certain tones can significantly decline irritability, stress hormone
levels, and promote calm at the same time. However, he also suggested that it
is important for people to choose what types of music to listen. This is
extremely necessary because your chosen will affect the result of cut-down
stress mostly.

In
addition, the rule of music in medicine is confirmed when psychotherapist use
music as a treatment for depressed patients. Some research have carried out to
show that whether listening to music reduces depressive symptoms among old
people, and one of them was conducted in Singapore in eight weeks. According to
Moon Fai Chan, Zi Yang Wong, Hideaki Onishi and Naidu Vellasamy Thayala (2011),
the purpose of this research was to check the influence of music on the levels
of depression in community-dwelling older population in Singapore. The result
is old people who listen to music have lower levels of depression than those
who do not, and after eight weeks study, there was a significant statistic of
reduction in depression levels.

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