1.2.5 anti-inflammatory activity in lipopolysaccharide-induced macrophage cells (Shih

1.2.5 BIOASSAYS

Antibacterial
activity

The
triterpenes present in the crude extract of Euphorbia
hirta was isolated by silica gel chromatography to test the antimicrobial
property of the plant extract. The compound taraxerone and
25-hydroperoxycycloart-23-en-3?-ol and 24-hydroperoxycycloart-25-en-3?-ol present
in the crude were obtained to dissolve in ethanol that inhibits the growth of P.aeruginosa and S.aureus (Ragasa and
Cornelio 2013). The Euphorbia hirta extract,
have prominent antibacterial effect against Shigella
dysenteriae and Shigella flexneri
(Ananthan et al.,1995)  

Antioxidant
activity

The flower
extract of E.hirta was obtained to evaluate DPPH free radical scavenging
activity, reducing power assay and other scavenging assay to check the
antioxidant activity. The alcoholic extract showed high percentage inhibition
of 66.12±1.5 in superoxide anion scavenging assay and 50.2±1.7 in DPPH
scavenging activity when compared to the other assays (Kumar et al.,2010) The methanol
extract of Euphorbia hirta (L). has a
strong antioxidant property which explores a maximum, DPPH scavenging activity
of (72.96±0.78) % whereas BHT has an antioxidant value of (75.13±0.75) % which
is used as a standard (Basma et al.,2011). The aqueous and ethanol extract of
this plant proved to have highest antioxidant activity using scavenging
bioassays. The high level of phenolics and Flavonoid content presence may be
responsible for this activity (Uppala et al.,2014).

Anti-inflammatory
property

The ethanolic
extract of E.hirta was showing an anti-inflammatory
effect, the active component ?-amyrin, was isolated separately from the plant, which
produces an anti-inflammatory activity in lipopolysaccharide-induced macrophage
cells (Shih et al.,2010). The effect on NO inhibition indicates the plant
extract has a potency against inflammation. The triterpenes like ?-amyrin,
?-sitosterol and methyl encyloartenol isolated from the n-hexane extract of E.hirta 
possess a significant anti-inflammatory property in 12-O-tetradecanoyl
phorbol acetate induced ear model (Vazquez et a.,1999)

Anti-tumour
activity

A new
cyclopentanone derivative from E.hirta
plant was isolated and structurally elucidated. The cytotoxicity effect of this
compound has also been studied (Chi et al.,2012). The isolated
(1R,5R)-5-(5-carboxymethyl-2-oxocyclopentyl)-3Z-pentenyl acetate compound from
the ethanolic extract of E.hirta were
evaluated for cytotoxicity in K562, human leukemia and A549 lung cancer cell
lines which exhibit weak activity against A549 cells. The triterpenes are
obtained from E.hirta to check the
cytotoxicity effect, were a combination of 25-hydroperoxycycloart-23-en-3?-ol
and 24-hydroperoxycycloart-25-en-3?-ol was taken as sample 2 which showed a
positive result against lung carcinoma A549 cell lines with IC50 value of 4.5
µg ml-1 (Ragasa and Cornelio.,2013)

Antidiarrheal
activity

The
lyophilized decoction of Euphorbia hirta
contains a flavonoid glycoside compound, quercitrin that showed a significant
anti diarrhoeic effect, at a dosage level of 350mg and 700mg against three
models of experimentally induced diarrhoea in mice by castor oil, arachidonic
acid, and prostaglandin E2 (Galvez et al.,1992). The antidiarrheal activity of
this plant extract was performed in mice. The aqueous extract ranging from
100-1000mg/kg was given in different dosage forms, followed by 0.5 ml of castor
oil to each mouse. The result showed that the leave extract of Euphorbia hirta possibly plays a crucial
role in the anti-diarrhoeic activity (Hore et al.,2006).

Diuretic effect

The
diuretic effect of E.hirta was analyzed
in rats by injecting water and ethanolic extract of the plant. There is a
significant increase in the electrolyte excretion, loss of Na+, K+, and HCO3?
ions was enhanced by water extract. Whereas the ethanolic extract of E.hirta
increases the excretion of HCO3? decreased the loss of K+ and had a little
effect on the renal removal of Na+. (Johnson et al.,1999)

Anti-anaphylactic activity

The
anti-anaphylactic effect of the ethanolic extract of E.hirta was observed against compound 488- induced systemic
anaphylaxis in rat and mouse models. EH-A001 when given orally prevented
compound 4880 induced mortality and initiate a suppressive effect on TNF-?
(Tumor necrosis factor alpha) by 34%, 55%, and 83% it also lowered the level of
(interleuin-6) IL-6 by 38%, 63%, 89% after DNP-HSA challenge. (Youssouf et
al.,2007) The anti-allergic effect & immunosuppressive property of the
ethanolic extract of E.hirta were
tested against various animal models. The nonspecific anaphylactic reaction
induced by compound 4880 where prevented by EH-A001, inhibiting RPMC
degranulation. Also, inhibit dextran-induced rat paw edema and suppress the
CD4CD8 cell ratio in peripheral blood (Singh et al.,2006).

Sedative property

The
lyophilized aqueous extract of E.hirta
possesses a sedative property, which was confirmed by the decreased behavioural
activity of mice when induced with a high dose of 100mg of dried whole plant/kg
(Lanhers et al.,1990)

Anti-venom activity

The
whole plant decoction or paste was used to treat snakebite by ancient
practitioners. The phenolic compounds present in the extract are responsible
for inhibiting the venom enzymes under in-vitro conditions (Gopi et al., 2015)
A major constituent, pyrogallol present in the methanolic extract of E. hirta was found to have the
anti-venom activity which is identified by GCMS, it significantly inhibits
protease but not phospholipase A2 even at higher concentrations
proving the specificity in venom detoxification. The present study (Gopi
et al.,2016) reveals that the compound Quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside isolated from
the methanolic extract of E.hirta
inhibit the protease as well as metalloproteases present in the snake venom.

Larvicidal activity

The
report of (Panneerselvam et al.,2013) reveals the larval and pupal activity of E.hirta leaf against An. Stephensi at different
concentrations ranging from 75 to 375 ppm. The mortality percent increases with
the concentration, the larvae found in the drinking water body was reduced by
13.17%, 37.64% and 84.00% at 24, 48 and 72 h after the treatment. Similarly,
the combined effect of E.hirta and B.sphaericus showed a 100% reduction in
larval density which proves that the leaf extract has a potential control on
the malarial vector. Different solvent extract of this plant was acquired to
show the larvicidal potential against Anopheles vector, in which the Petroleum
ether and methanol extract showed an effective toxicity to the vector (Sharma
et al.,2009). The methanol extract and the synthesized AgNPs from E. hirta leaf were analysed for toxicity
effect against An. Stephensiat. The
synthesized AgNPs were more potent than crude extract, in inhibiting the larval
vector (Priyadharshini et al.,2012). The study of (Rahman et al.,2010) added
the predominant adult emergence inhibition and adulticidal activity of this
plant.

 1.2.5 BIOASSAYS

Antibacterial
activity

The
triterpenes present in the crude extract of Euphorbia
hirta was isolated by silica gel chromatography to test the antimicrobial
property of the plant extract. The compound taraxerone and
25-hydroperoxycycloart-23-en-3?-ol and 24-hydroperoxycycloart-25-en-3?-ol present
in the crude were obtained to dissolve in ethanol that inhibits the growth of P.aeruginosa and S.aureus (Ragasa and
Cornelio 2013). The Euphorbia hirta extract,
have prominent antibacterial effect against Shigella
dysenteriae and Shigella flexneri
(Ananthan et al.,1995)  

Antioxidant
activity

The flower
extract of E.hirta was obtained to evaluate DPPH free radical scavenging
activity, reducing power assay and other scavenging assay to check the
antioxidant activity. The alcoholic extract showed high percentage inhibition
of 66.12±1.5 in superoxide anion scavenging assay and 50.2±1.7 in DPPH
scavenging activity when compared to the other assays (Kumar et al.,2010) The methanol
extract of Euphorbia hirta (L). has a
strong antioxidant property which explores a maximum, DPPH scavenging activity
of (72.96±0.78) % whereas BHT has an antioxidant value of (75.13±0.75) % which
is used as a standard (Basma et al.,2011). The aqueous and ethanol extract of
this plant proved to have highest antioxidant activity using scavenging
bioassays. The high level of phenolics and Flavonoid content presence may be
responsible for this activity (Uppala et al.,2014).

Anti-inflammatory
property

The ethanolic
extract of E.hirta was showing an anti-inflammatory
effect, the active component ?-amyrin, was isolated separately from the plant, which
produces an anti-inflammatory activity in lipopolysaccharide-induced macrophage
cells (Shih et al.,2010). The effect on NO inhibition indicates the plant
extract has a potency against inflammation. The triterpenes like ?-amyrin,
?-sitosterol and methyl encyloartenol isolated from the n-hexane extract of E.hirta 
possess a significant anti-inflammatory property in 12-O-tetradecanoyl
phorbol acetate induced ear model (Vazquez et a.,1999)

Anti-tumour
activity

A new
cyclopentanone derivative from E.hirta
plant was isolated and structurally elucidated. The cytotoxicity effect of this
compound has also been studied (Chi et al.,2012). The isolated
(1R,5R)-5-(5-carboxymethyl-2-oxocyclopentyl)-3Z-pentenyl acetate compound from
the ethanolic extract of E.hirta were
evaluated for cytotoxicity in K562, human leukemia and A549 lung cancer cell
lines which exhibit weak activity against A549 cells. The triterpenes are
obtained from E.hirta to check the
cytotoxicity effect, were a combination of 25-hydroperoxycycloart-23-en-3?-ol
and 24-hydroperoxycycloart-25-en-3?-ol was taken as sample 2 which showed a
positive result against lung carcinoma A549 cell lines with IC50 value of 4.5
µg ml-1 (Ragasa and Cornelio.,2013)

Antidiarrheal
activity

The
lyophilized decoction of Euphorbia hirta
contains a flavonoid glycoside compound, quercitrin that showed a significant
anti diarrhoeic effect, at a dosage level of 350mg and 700mg against three
models of experimentally induced diarrhoea in mice by castor oil, arachidonic
acid, and prostaglandin E2 (Galvez et al.,1992). The antidiarrheal activity of
this plant extract was performed in mice. The aqueous extract ranging from
100-1000mg/kg was given in different dosage forms, followed by 0.5 ml of castor
oil to each mouse. The result showed that the leave extract of Euphorbia hirta possibly plays a crucial
role in the anti-diarrhoeic activity (Hore et al.,2006).

Diuretic effect

The
diuretic effect of E.hirta was analyzed
in rats by injecting water and ethanolic extract of the plant. There is a
significant increase in the electrolyte excretion, loss of Na+, K+, and HCO3?
ions was enhanced by water extract. Whereas the ethanolic extract of E.hirta
increases the excretion of HCO3? decreased the loss of K+ and had a little
effect on the renal removal of Na+. (Johnson et al.,1999)

Anti-anaphylactic activity

The
anti-anaphylactic effect of the ethanolic extract of E.hirta was observed against compound 488- induced systemic
anaphylaxis in rat and mouse models. EH-A001 when given orally prevented
compound 4880 induced mortality and initiate a suppressive effect on TNF-?
(Tumor necrosis factor alpha) by 34%, 55%, and 83% it also lowered the level of
(interleuin-6) IL-6 by 38%, 63%, 89% after DNP-HSA challenge. (Youssouf et
al.,2007) The anti-allergic effect & immunosuppressive property of the
ethanolic extract of E.hirta were
tested against various animal models. The nonspecific anaphylactic reaction
induced by compound 4880 where prevented by EH-A001, inhibiting RPMC
degranulation. Also, inhibit dextran-induced rat paw edema and suppress the
CD4CD8 cell ratio in peripheral blood (Singh et al.,2006).

Sedative property

The
lyophilized aqueous extract of E.hirta
possesses a sedative property, which was confirmed by the decreased behavioural
activity of mice when induced with a high dose of 100mg of dried whole plant/kg
(Lanhers et al.,1990)

Anti-venom activity

The
whole plant decoction or paste was used to treat snakebite by ancient
practitioners. The phenolic compounds present in the extract are responsible
for inhibiting the venom enzymes under in-vitro conditions (Gopi et al., 2015)
A major constituent, pyrogallol present in the methanolic extract of E. hirta was found to have the
anti-venom activity which is identified by GCMS, it significantly inhibits
protease but not phospholipase A2 even at higher concentrations
proving the specificity in venom detoxification. The present study (Gopi
et al.,2016) reveals that the compound Quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside isolated from
the methanolic extract of E.hirta
inhibit the protease as well as metalloproteases present in the snake venom.

Larvicidal activity

The
report of (Panneerselvam et al.,2013) reveals the larval and pupal activity of E.hirta leaf against An. Stephensi at different
concentrations ranging from 75 to 375 ppm. The mortality percent increases with
the concentration, the larvae found in the drinking water body was reduced by
13.17%, 37.64% and 84.00% at 24, 48 and 72 h after the treatment. Similarly,
the combined effect of E.hirta and B.sphaericus showed a 100% reduction in
larval density which proves that the leaf extract has a potential control on
the malarial vector. Different solvent extract of this plant was acquired to
show the larvicidal potential against Anopheles vector, in which the Petroleum
ether and methanol extract showed an effective toxicity to the vector (Sharma
et al.,2009). The methanol extract and the synthesized AgNPs from E. hirta leaf were analysed for toxicity
effect against An. Stephensiat. The
synthesized AgNPs were more potent than crude extract, in inhibiting the larval
vector (Priyadharshini et al.,2012). The study of (Rahman et al.,2010) added
the predominant adult emergence inhibition and adulticidal activity of this
plant.